1.Burke, JP. Patient safety: infection control—a problem for patient safety. N Engl J Med 2003;348:651–656.
2.Gerberding, JL. Hospital-onset infections: a patient safety issue. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:665–670.
3.Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, Morgan, WM, Emori, TG. The nationwide nosocomial infection rate: a new need for vital statistics. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:159–167.
4.Haley, RW, Hooton, TM, Culver, DH, et al.Nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals, 1975-1976: estimated frequency by selected characteristics of Patients. Am J Med 1981;70:947–959.
5.Saint, S, Wiese, J, Amory, JK, et al.Are physicians aware of which of their patients have indwelling urinary catheters? Am J Med 2000;109:476–480.
6.Johnson, JR, Kuskowski, MA, Wilt, TJ. Systematic review: antimicrobial urinary catheters to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection in hospitalized Patients. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:116–126.
7.Karchmer, TB, Giannetta, ET, Muto, CA, Strain, BA, Farr, BM. A randomized crossover study of silver-coated urinary catheters in hospitalized Patients. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3294–3298.
8.Brosnahan, J, Jull, A, Tracy, C. Types of urethral catheters for management of short-term voiding problems in hospitalised adults. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2004:CD004013.
9.Cornia, PB, Amory, JK, Fraser, S, Saint, S, Lipsky, BA. Computer-based order entry decreases duration of indwelling urinary catheterization in hospitalized Patients. Am J Med 2003;114:404–407.
10.Huang, WC, Wann, SR, Lin, SL, et al.Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units can be reduced by prompting physicians to remove unnecessary catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004;25:974–978.
11.Saint, S, Kaufman, SR, Rogers, MA, Baker, PD, Ossenkop, K, Lipsky, BA. Condom versus indwelling urinary catheters: a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1055–1061.
12.Saint, S, Lipsky, BA, Goold, SD. Indwelling urinary catheters: a one-point restraint? Ann Intern Med 2002;137:125–127.
13.Warren, JW. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2001;17:299–303.
14.Warren, JW. The catheter and urinary tract infection. Med Clin North Am 1991;75:481–493.
15.Stamm, WE. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and prevention. Am J Med 1991;91:65S–71S.
16.Maki, DG, Tambyah, PA. Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:342–347.
17.Saint, S, Chenoweth, CE. Biofilms and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2003;17:411–432.
18.Saint, S, Lipsky, BA. Preventing catheter-related bacteriuria: can we? should we? how? Arch Intern Med 1999;159:800–808.
19.Saint, S, Kowalski, CP, Kaufman, SR, et al.Preventing hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in the United States: a national study. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:243–250.
20.Krein, SL, Hofer, TP, Kowalski, CP, et al.Use of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention practices by US hospitals. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:672–678.
21.Krein, SL, Olmsted, RN, Hofer, TP, et al.Translating infection prevention evidence into practice using quantitative and qualitative research. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:507–512.
22.Patton, MQ. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2002.
23.Weiss, RS. Learning From Strangers: the art and method of qualitative interview studies. New York: The Free Press; 1994.
24.Sandelowski, M. Focus on research methods: whatever happened to qualitative description? Res Nurs Health 2000;23:334–340.
25.Mason, J. Qualitative Researching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2002.
26.Sandelowski, M, Barroso, J. Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project. Qual Health Res 2003;13:781–820.
27.Creswell, JW. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Pearson Education; 2002.
28.Greenhalgh, T, Robert, G, Macfarlane, F, Bate, P, Kyriakidou, O. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Q 2004;82:581–629.
29.Pear, R. Medicare says it won't cover hospital errors. The New York Times August 19, 2007:A1.