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Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship—Observational Studies

  • Graham M. Snyder (a1), Heather Young (a2), Meera Varman (a3), Aaron M. Milstone (a4), Anthony D. Harris (a5) and Silvia Munoz-Price (a6)...


Observational studies compare outcomes among subjects with and without an exposure of interest, without intervention from study investigators. Observational studies can be designed as a prospective or retrospective cohort study or as a case-control study. In healthcare epidemiology, these observational studies often take advantage of existing healthcare databases, making them more cost-effective than clinical trials and allowing analyses of rare outcomes. This paper addresses the importance of selecting a well-defined study population, highlights key considerations for study design, and offers potential solutions including biostatistical tools that are applicable to observational study designs.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1–6


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Graham Snyder, Mailstop SL-435, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (


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Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship—Observational Studies

  • Graham M. Snyder (a1), Heather Young (a2), Meera Varman (a3), Aaron M. Milstone (a4), Anthony D. Harris (a5) and Silvia Munoz-Price (a6)...


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