von Elm, E, Altman, DG, Egger, M, Pocock, SJ, Gotzsche, PC, Vandenbroucke, JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Ann Intern Med
Sanderson, S, Tatt, ID, Higgins, JP. Tools for assessing quality and susceptibility to bias in observational studies in epidemiology: a systematic review and annotated bibliography. Int J Epidemiol
Hofler, M. Causal inference based on counterfactuals. BMC Med Res Methodol
Kleinbaum, DG, Kupper, LL, Morgenstern, H. Epidemiologic Research: Principles and Quantitative Methods. Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications; 1982.
Schulz, KF, Grimes, DA. Case-control studies: research in reverse. Lancet
Wacholder, S, McLaughlin, JK, Silverman, DT, Mandel, JS. Selection of controls in case-control studies. I. Principles. Am J Epidemiol
Wacholder, S, Silverman, DT, McLaughlin, JK, Mandel, JS. Selection of controls in case-control studies. III. Design options. Am J Epidemiol
Wyllie, D, Davies, J. Role of data warehousing in healthcare epidemiology. J Hosp Infect
Harris, AD, Carmeli, Y, Samore, MH, Kaye, KS, Perencevich, E. Impact of severity of illness bias and control group misclassification bias in case-control studies of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Dhar, S, Tansek, R, Toftey, EA, et al. Observer bias in hand hygiene compliance reporting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Nelson, RE, Nelson, SD, Khader, K, et al. The magnitude of time-dependent bias in the estimation of excess length of stay attributable to healthcare-associated infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Schweizer, ML, Braun, BI, Milstone, AM. Research methods in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship—quasi-experimental designs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2016.91. Published online April 14, 2016.
Rhame, FS, Sudderth, WD. Incidence and prevalence as used in the analysis of the occurrence of nosocomial infections. Am J Epidemiol
Viera, AJ, Garrett, JM. Understanding interobserver agreement: the kappa statistic. Fam Med
Hallgren, KA. Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: an overview and tutorial. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol
16. 2014 NHSN Data Quality Guidance and Toolkit for Reporting Facilities: Internal Validation of NHSN Patient Safety Component Data. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/validation/index.html. Published 2014. Accessed January 29, 2016.
Piroth, L, Aube, H, Doise, JM, Vincent-Martin, M. Spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: are beta-lactamase inhibitors of therapeutic value?
Clin Infect Dis
Harris, AD, Karchmer, TB, Carmeli, Y, Samore, MH. Methodological principles of case-control studies that analyzed risk factors for antibiotic resistance: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis
Ong, DS, Jongerden, IP, Buiting, AG, et al. Antibiotic exposure and resistance development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species in intensive care units. Crit Care Med
Wirtschafter, DD, Powers, RJ, Pettit, JS, et al. Nosocomial infection reduction in VLBW infants with a statewide quality-improvement model. Pediatrics
Petticrew, M, Cummins, S, Ferrell, C, et al. Natural experiments: an underused tool for public health?
Davies, HT, Crombie, IK, Tavakoli, M. When can odds ratios mislead?
Newgard, CD, Lewis, RJ. Missing data: how to best account for what is not known. JAMA
Muscedere, JG, Day, A, Heyland, DK. Mortality, attributable mortality, and clinical events as end points for clinical trials of ventilator-associated pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis
Schumacher, M, Allignol, A, Beyersmann, J, Binder, N, Wolkewitz, M. Hospital-acquired infections—appropriate statistical treatment is urgently needed!
Int J Epidemiol
Austin, PC. An introduction to propensity score methods for reducing the effects of confounding in observational studies. Multivariate Behav Res