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  • Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Volume 33, Issue 3
  • March 2012, pp. 257-267

The Efficacy of Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine for Reducing Healthcare-Associated Bloodstream Infections: A Meta-analysis

  • John C. O'Horo (a1), Germana L. M. Silva (a2), L. Silvia Munoz-Price (a3) and Nasia Safdar (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2015

Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies to assess the efficacy of daily bathing with chlorhexidine (CHG) for prevention of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs).


Medical, surgical, trauma, and combined medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and long-term acute care hospitals.




Data on patient population, diagnostic criteria for BSIs, form and concentration of topical CHG, incidence of BSIs, and study design were extracted.


One randomized controlled trial and 11 nonrandomized controlled trials reporting a total of 137,392 patient-days met the inclusion criteria; 291 patients in the CHG arm developed a BSI over 67,775 patient-days, compared with 557 patients in the control arm over 69,617 catheter-days. CHG bathing resulted in a reduced incidence of BSIs: the pooled odds ratio using a random-effects model was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.59; P< .00001). Statistical heterogeneity was moderate, with an I2 of 58%. For the subgroup of studies that examined central line–associated BSIs, the odds ratio was 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.27–0.59).


Daily bathing with CHG reduced the incidence of BSIs, including central line-associated BSIs, among patients in the medical ICU. Further studies are recommended to determine the optimal frequency, method of application, and concentration of CHG as well as the comparative effectiveness of this strategy relative to other preventive measures available for reducing BSIs. Future studies should also examine the efficacy of daily CHG bathing in non-ICU populations at risk for BSI.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(3):257-267

Corresponding author
University of Wisconsin Medical School, 1685 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (
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