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Validation and Cross-Cultural Pilot Testing of Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale: Self-Administered Instrument for Clinical Nurses

  • Simon C. Lam (a1)

To perform detailed psychometric testing of the compliance with standard precautions scale (CSPS) in measuring compliance with standard precautions of clinical nurses and to conduct cross-cultural pilot testing and assess the relevance of the CSPS on an international platform.


A cross-sectional and correlational design with repeated measures.


Nursing students from a local registered nurse training university, nurses from different hospitals in Hong Kong, and experts in an international conference.


The psychometric properties of the CSPS were evaluated via internal consistency, 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability, concurrent validation, and construct validation. The cross-cultural pilot testing and relevance check was examined by experts on infection control from various developed and developing regions.


Among 453 participants, 193 were nursing students, 165 were enrolled nurses, and 95 were registered nurses. The results showed that the CSPS had satisfactory reliability (Cronbach α = 0.73; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.79 for 2-week test-retest and 0.74 for 3-month test-retest) and validity (optimum correlation with criterion measure; r = 0.76, P < .001; satisfactory results on known-group method and hypothesis testing). A total of 19 experts from 16 countries assured that most of the CSPS findings were relevant and globally applicable.


The CSPS demonstrated satisfactory results on the basis of the standard international criteria on psychometric testing, which ascertained the reliability and validity of this instrument in measuring the compliance of clinical nurses with standard precautions. The cross-cultural pilot testing further reinforced the instrument's relevance and applicability in most developed and developing regions.

Corresponding author
Division of Nursing and Health Studies, School of Science and Technology, Open University of Hong Kong, 30 Good Shepherd Street, Homantin, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China (
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Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
  • ISSN: 0899-823X
  • EISSN: 1559-6834
  • URL: /core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology
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