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A Criminological Perspective on Recruitment of Men and Women to Daesh

  • Jerzy Sarnecki (a1)
Abstract

Criminological research usually directs its focus at traditional forms of offending. The purpose of this article is to discuss the extent to which traditional criminological theories can be used to understand a modern form of terrorism. The main issue to explain is why young men and women from a Western European country, such as Sweden, are joining Daesh in Iraq and Syria. The conclusion is that many criminology theories are useful to analyse the factors behind the affiliation to Daesh. The majority of those recruited into this organization have in many respects a similar background to individuals recruited to other forms of serious organized violent crimes. It should be noted that many of the theories discussed in the paper are more relevant for the understanding of why men join Daesh. When it comes to the recruitment of women these theories’ explanatory value is more limited. However, this applies also to these theories’ ability to explain female crime in general.

La investigación criminológica generalmente dirige su enfoque a las formas tradicionales de ofender. El objetivo de este capítulo es analizar en qué medida las teorías criminológicas tradicionales pueden utilizarse para comprender una forma moderna de terrorismo. El principal problema a explicar es por qué los hombres y mujeres jóvenes de un país de Europa occidental, como Suecia, se unen a Daesh en Irak y Siria. La conclusión es que muchas teorías criminológicas son útiles para analizar los factores detrás de la afiliación a Daesh. La mayoría de los reclutados en esta organización tienen antecedentes en muchos aspectos similares a los reclutados para otras formas de crímenes violentos organizados graves. Cabe señalar que muchas de las teorías discutidas en el capítulo son más relevantes para la comprensión de por qué los hombres se unen a Daesh. Cuando se trata de la contratación de mujeres, estas teorías tienen un valor explicativo más limitado. Esto se aplica también, sin embargo, a la capacidad de estas teorías de explicar el crimen femenino en general.

La recherche criminologique se concentre généralement sur les formes traditionnelles de délinquance. Le but de ce chapitre est d’examiner dans quelle mesure les théories criminologiques traditionnelles peuvent être utilisées pour comprendre une forme moderne de terrorisme. La principale question à expliquer est la raison pour laquelle des jeunes hommes et femmes d’un pays d’Europe occidentale, comme la Suède, rejoignent Daech en Irak et en Syrie. La conclusion est que de nombreuses théories de la criminologie sont utiles pour analyser les facteurs derrière l’affiliation à Daesh. La majorité des personnes recrutées dans cette organisation ont, à bien des égards, des antécédents similaires à ceux des personnes recrutées dans d’autres formes de crimes violents organisés graves. Il convient de noter que nombre des théories présentées dans ce chapitre sont plus pertinentes pour comprendre pourquoi les hommes rejoignent Daesh. En ce qui concerne le recrutement des femmes, la valeur de ces théories est plus limitée. Cela vaut également pour les théories qui expliquent la criminalité féminine en général.

犯罪學研究通常將其重點放在傳統形式的犯罪上。本章的目的是討論傳統犯罪學理論在多大程度上可用於理解現代恐怖主義形式。要解釋的主要問題是為什麼來自西歐國家的年輕男女如瑞典加入伊拉克和敘利亞的Daesh。

結論是, 許多犯罪學理論對於分析與Daesh的歸屬背後的因素是有用的。招募到該組織的大多數人在許多方面與招募其他形式的嚴重有組織暴力犯罪的個人具有相似的背景。

應該指出的是, 本章中討論的許多理論與理解為什麼男人加入Daesh更為相關。在招聘女性方面, 這些理論的解釋價值更為有限。然而, 這也適用於這些理論解釋一般女性犯罪的能力。

عادة ما يوجه البحث الجنائي تركيزه على الأشكال التقليدية للإهانة. الغرض من هذا الفصل هو مناقشة مدى إمكانية استخدام النظريات الجنائية التقليدية لفهم شكل حديث من أشكال الإرهاب. تكمن القضية الرئيسية التي تفسر لماذا ينضم الشباب والشابات من دولة أوروبية غربية ، مثل السويد ، إلى داعش في العراق وسوريا.

الاستنتاج هو أن العديد من نظريات علم الإجرام مفيدة لتحليل العوامل الكامنة وراء الانتماء إلى داعش. ولجميع الذين جُنّدوا في هذه المنظمة ، من عدة جوانب ، خلفية مماثلة للأفراد المعينين في أشكال أخرى من جرائم العنف المنظمة الخطيرة.

تجدر الإشارة إلى أن العديد من النظريات التي تمت مناقشتها في الفصل أكثر ملاءمة لفهم سبب انضمام الرجال لداعش. عندما يتعلق الأمر بتجنيد النساء فهذه النظريات القيمة التوضيحية أكثر محدودية. هذا ينطبق أيضا ، مع ذلك ، على هذه النظرية القدرة على تفسير الجريمة النسائية بشكل عام.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding Author: Jerzy Sarnecki, Department of Criminology, University of Stockholm, Kriminologiska Institutionen, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: jerzy.sarnecki@criminology.su.se
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