Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-65n5b Total loading time: 0.171 Render date: 2021-06-17T22:11:11.919Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Policies and Counterstrategies: State-Sponsored Filiality and False Accusation in Qing China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 July 2019

Yue Du
Affiliation:
Cornell University
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Using court cases culled from various national and local archives in China, this article examines two strategies widely employed by Qing litigants to manipulate state-sponsored filiality to advance their perceived interests in court: “instrumental filicide to lodge a false accusation” and “false accusation of unfiliality.” While Qing subjects were willing and able to exploit the legalized inequality between parent and child for profit-seeking purposes, the Qing imperial state tolerated such maneuvering so as to co-opt local negotiations to reinforce orthodox notions of the parent–child hierarchy in its subjects’ everyday lives. Local actors, who appealed to the Qing legal promotion of parental dominance and filial obedience to empower themselves, were recruited into the Qing state's project of moral penetration and social control, with law functioning as a conduit and instrument that gave the design of “ruling the empire through the principle of filial piety” a concrete legal form in imperial governance.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

BXDA: Ba Xian Dang'an 巴縣檔案 (“Ba County Archives”), Sichuan Provincial Archives. Cited by file number and date.Google Scholar
DLCY 1970 [1905]: Xue Yunsheng 薛允升. Duli cunyi 讀例存疑 (“Lingering Doubts after Reading Sub-statutes”). Taipei: Shangwu yinshu guan, 1970 [1905]. All Qing statutes and sub-statutes are refd from DLCY.Google Scholar
FMFDA: Fumin Fu Dang'an 撫民府檔案 (“Fumin Prefecture Archives”), Shuangcheng District Archives. Cited by file number and date.Google Scholar
Gaozong shilu 1985: Gaozong chun huangdi shilu 高宗純皇帝實錄 (“Veritable Records of Emperor Gaozongchun”), vol. 1. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1985.Google Scholar
NBXDA: Nanbu Xian Dang'an 南部縣檔案 (“Nanbu County Archives”), Nanchong Municipal Archives. Cited by date and file number.Google Scholar
LFZZ: Lufu Zouzhe 錄副奏摺 (“Grand Council Copies of Palace Memorials”), the First Historical Archives of China. Cited by file number and date.Google Scholar
Shengyu guang xun 1817 [1724]: Aisin Gioro Yinzhen. Shengyu guang xun 聖諭廣訓, 1817 [1724]. The Sacred Edict, Containing Sixteen Maxims of the Emperor Kang-he, Amplified by His Son, The Emperor Yoong-ching. Translated by Milne, William. London: Black, Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, 1817.Google Scholar
XKTB: Xingke tiben 刑科題本 (“Routine Memorials of the Board of Punishments”), the First Historical Archives of China. Cited by file number and date.Google Scholar
ZZPZ: Zhupi Zouzhe 硃批奏摺 (“Palace Memorials with Vermilion Rescripts”), the First Historical Archives of China. Cited by number and date.Google Scholar
Asen, Daniel (2009). “Vital Spots, Mortal Wounds, and Forensic Practice: Finding Cause of Death in Nineteenth-Century China.” East Asian Science, Technology and Society 3:4, pp. 453–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernhardt, Kathryn (1999). Women and Property in China, 960–1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Bourgon, Jérôme, and Julie, Erismann (2014). “Figures of Deference in Late Imperial China: Frequency, Spatial Repartition, and Types of Crimes Targeted by Dismemberment in the Qing Dynasty.” Crime, History and Society 18:2, pp. 4984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brook, Timothy, Gregory, Blue, and Jérôme, Bourgon (2008). Death by a Thousand Cuts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Buoye, Thomas (2007a). “Filial Felons: Leniency and Legal Reasoning in Qing China.” In Writing and Law in Late Imperial China, eds. Hegel, Robert C. and Carlitz, Katherine, pp. 109–24. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Buoye, Thomas (2007b). “Cunliu yangqin: Qingchao sixing fuhe de jingyan” 存留養親:清朝死刑復核的經驗 (“Convicted Caregivers: Late Imperial Lessons in Death Penalty Reviews”). In Zhonghua faxi guoji xueshu yantaohui wenji 中华法系国际学术研讨会文集 (“Proceedings of the International Conference on Chinese Law”), ed. Zhongqiu, Zhang 張中秋, pp. 250–59. Beijing: Zhongguo zhengfa daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
Chen, Li (2012). “Legal Specialists and Judicial Administration in Late Imperial China, 1651–1911.” Late Imperial China 33:1, pp. 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conner, Alison (2000). “True Confessions? Chinese Confessions Then and Now.” In The Limits of the Rule of Law in China, eds. Turner, Karen G., Feinerman, James V., and Guy, R. Kent, pp. 132–62. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Da Ming lü 大明律, trans. Jiang, Yonglin (2005). Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Da Ming lü fu wen xing tiao li 大明律附問刑條例, ed. Xiaofeng, Huai 懷效鋒 (1989). Shenyang: Liaoshen shushe.Google Scholar
Du, Yue (2017a). “Parenthood and the State in China, 1644–1949: Law, Ritual, and State-Building.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
Du, Yue (2017b). “Concubinage and Motherhood in Qing China (1644–1911): Ritual, Law, and Custodial Rights of Property.” Journal of Family History 42:2, pp. 162–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duan, Wenyan 段文艷 (2011). “Sishi de weibi: Qingdai zisha tulai xianxiang zhong de fa yu ‘diaomin’” 死屍的威逼:清代自殺圖賴現象中的法與“刁民”. Xueshu yanjiu 5, pp. 125–29.Google Scholar
Ebrey, Patricia (2004). “Imperial Filial Piety as a Political Problem.” In Filial Piety in Chinese Thought and History, eds. Chan, Alan and Tan, Sor-Hoon, pp. 122–40. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Elliot, Mark (1999). “Manchu Widows and Ethnicity in Qing China.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41:1, pp. 3371.Google Scholar
Epstein, Maram (2007). “Making a Case: Characterizing the Filial Son.” In Writing and Law in Late Imperial China, eds. Hegel, Robert C. and Carlitz, Katherine, pp. 2743. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Fang, Junshi 方濬師 (1995 [1872]). Jiaoxuan suilu, xulu 蕉軒隨錄、續錄 (“Jiaoxuan miscellany, Parts. I and II”). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
Fang, Qiang (2012). “A Silent ‘Revolution’: The Late Qing Reform on the Jumping Appeal System, 1899–1911.” Journal of Asian History 46:1: pp. 97115.Google Scholar
Gabbiani, Luca (2013). “Insanity and Parricide in Late Imperial China (Eighteenth–Twentieth Centuries).” International Journal of Asian Studies 10:2, pp. 115–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gao, Hancheng 高漢成 (2013). Daqing xinxinglü lifa ziliao huibian 大清新刑律立法資料彙編 (“A Legislative Data Corpus of the Qing Dynasty's New Criminal Law”). Beijing: Shehuikexue wenxian chubanshe.Google Scholar
Hamilton, Gary (1990). “Patriarchy, Patrimonialism and Filial Piety.” British Journal of Sociology 41, pp. 77104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huang, Philip C. C. (1996). Civil Justice in China: Representation and Practice in the Qing. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Huang, Yuan-Sheng 黃源盛 (2014 [2013]). Zhongguo fashi daolun 中國法史導論 (“Introduction to Chinese Legal History”). Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe.Google Scholar
Javers, Quinn (2014). “The Logic of Lies: False Accusation and Legal Culture in Late Qing Sichuan.” Late Imperial China 35:2: pp. 3755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karasawa, Yasuhiko (2007). “From Oral Testimony to Written Records in Qing Legal Cases.” In Thinking with Cases: Specialist Knowledge in Chinese Cultural History, eds. Furth, Charlotte, Zeitlin, Judith T., and Hsiung, Ping-chen, pp. 101–22. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.Google Scholar
Kong, Yanxi 孔延禧 (1993 [1661]). “Xiangyue quanshu鄉約書 (“A Complete Collection of Community Covenant”). In Qingdai wuding yizu nashi tusi dang'an shiliao jiaobian 清代武定彝族那氏土司檔案史料校編 (“A Revised Version of the Qing Archival Sources of the Na Clan of the Yi Nationality of Wuding”), eds. Meitang, Wang 王堂梅, Jianming, Huang 黃建明, and Yumin, Lu 陸裕民, pp. 261–86. Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan chubanshe.Google Scholar
Kutcher, Norman (1999). Mourning in Late Imperial China: Filial Piety and the State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liang, Linxia (2007). Delivering Justice in Qing China: Civil Trial in the Magistrate's Courts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lu, Hong, Miethe, Terance D., and Liang, Bin (2009). China's Drug Practices and Policies: Regulating Controlled Substances in a Global Context. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
, Miaofen 呂妙芬 (2011). Xiaozhi tianxia 孝治天下 (“Ruling All under Heaven through Filiality”). Taipei: Lianjing chuban gongsi.Google Scholar
Macauley, Melissa (1998). Social Power and Legal Culture: Litigation Masters in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Mair, Victor H. (1985). “Language and Ideology in the Written Popularizations of the Sacred Edict.” In Popular Culture in Late Imperial China, eds. Johnson, David, Nathan, Andrew, and Rawski, Evelyn S., pp. 325–59. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Nakamura, Masato 中村 正人 (2004). “Shinritsu hanzai sontō yōshin jō hokō (2)” 清律『犯罪存留養親』条補考 (二). Kanazawa Hōgaku 46:2, pp. 135–56.Google Scholar
Nakamura, Masato 中村 正人 (2003). “Shinritsu hanzai sontō yōshin jō hokō (1)” 清律『犯罪存留養親』条補考 (一). Kanazawa Hōgaku 45:2, pp. 337–63.Google Scholar
Nakamura, Masato 中村 正人 (2001). “Shinritsu hanzai sontō yōshin jō kō (2)” 清律『犯罪存留養親』条考 (二). Kanazawa Hōgaku 43:3, pp. 137–64.Google Scholar
Nakamura, Masato 中村 正人 (2000). “Shinritsu hanzai sontō yōshin jō kō (1)” 清律『犯罪存留養親』条考 (一). Kanazawa Hōgaku 42:2, pp. 187207.Google Scholar
Pomeranz, Kenneth (2008). “Land Markets in Late Imperial and Republican China.” Continuity and Change 23:1, pp. 101–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ocko, Jonathan K. (1988). “I'll Take It All the Way to Beijing: Capital Appeals in the Qing.” Journal of Asian Studies 47:2, pp. 291315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qu, Tongzu (2013 [1965]). Law and Society in Traditional China. Beijing: Shangwu yinshu guan.Google Scholar
Ruan, Yuan 阮元 (1979 [1826]) ed. Shisanjing zhushu 十三經註疏 (“Annotated Thirteen Classics”) vol. 2. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.Google Scholar
Shiga, Shūzō 滋賀 秀三 (1967). Chugoku Kazoku-ho no Genri 中国家族法の原理 (“Principles of Chinese Family Law”). Tokyo: Sobunsha.Google Scholar
Sommer, Matthew H. (forthcoming). “Some Problems with Corpses: Standards of Validity in Qing Homicide Cases.” In Powerful Arguments: Standards of Validity in Late Imperial China, eds. Hoffman, Martin et al. , pp. 151.Google Scholar
Sommer, Matthew H. (2015). Polyandry and Wife-Selling in Qing Dynasty China: Survival Strategies and Judicial Interventions. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sommer, Matthew H. (2000). Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Sun, Jiahong 孫家紅 (2013). Guanyu zisun weifan jiaoling de lishi kaocha: yige weiguan fashixue de changshi 關於”子孫違反教令”的歷史考察:一個微觀法史學的嘗試 (“The Historical Development of the Law of ‘Disobedient Descendants’ in Traditional China from the Perspective of Micro-Legal History”). Beijing: Shehuikexue wenxian chubanshe.Google Scholar
Theiss, Janet (2005). Disgraceful Matters: The Politics of Chastity in Eighteenth-Century China. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstein, Jodi L. (2013). Empire and Identity in Guizhou: Local Resistance to Qing Expansion. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Wu, Jianfan 吳建璠 (2001). “Qingdai de fanzui cunliu yangqin” 清代的犯罪存留養親. Faxue yanjiu 5, pp. 126–36.Google Scholar
Zhang, Taisu (2017). The Laws and Economics of Confucianism: Kinship and Property in Preindustrial China and England. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Taisu (2014). “Social Hierarchies and the Formation of Customary Property Law in Pre-Industrial China and England.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 62:1, pp. 171220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Ting (forthcoming). Printing, Law, and the Making of Chinese Legal Culture, 1644–1911. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
Zhang, Wuwei 張五瑋 (2008 [1812]). Jiangqiu gongji lu 講求共濟錄 (“Records of Seeking the Public Benefit”). Ming Qing fazhi shiliao jikan 明清法制史料輯刊 (“A Collection of Ming and Qing Legal Sources”), series 1, vol. 16. Beijing: Guojia tushuguan chubanshe.Google Scholar
Zhang, Zhongkui 張中奎 (2012). Gaitu guiliu yu miaojiang zaizao 改土歸流與苗疆再造 (“Replacing Native Chieftains with State-Appointed Officials and the Reconstruction of the Miao Territories”). Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe.Google Scholar
Zito, Angela (1997). Of Body and Brush: Grand Sacrifice as Text/Performance in 18th-Century China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Policies and Counterstrategies: State-Sponsored Filiality and False Accusation in Qing China
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Policies and Counterstrategies: State-Sponsored Filiality and False Accusation in Qing China
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Policies and Counterstrategies: State-Sponsored Filiality and False Accusation in Qing China
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *