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Impact of space weather on climate and habitability of terrestrial-type exoplanets

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 July 2019

V. S. Airapetian
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA Department of Physics, American University, Washington, DC, USA
R. Barnes
Affiliation:
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
O. Cohen
Affiliation:
Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, USA
G. A. Collinson
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
W. C. Danchi
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
C. F. Dong
Affiliation:
Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
A. D. Del Genio
Affiliation:
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, USA
K. France
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO80309, USA
K. Garcia-Sage
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
A. Glocer
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
N. Gopalswamy
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
J. L. Grenfell
Affiliation:
Department of Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres (EPA), Institute for Planetary Research, German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489 Berlin, Adlershof, Germany
G. Gronoff
Affiliation:
NASA/LaRC, Hampton, VA, USA
M. Güdel
Affiliation:
Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
K. Herbst
Affiliation:
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Leibnizstr. 11, 24118 Kiel, Germany
W. G. Henning
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
C. H. Jackman
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
M. Jin
Affiliation:
SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA94043, USA
C. P. Johnstone
Affiliation:
Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
L. Kaltenegger
Affiliation:
Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
C. D. Kay
Affiliation:
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Leibnizstr. 11, 24118 Kiel, Germany
K. Kobayashi
Affiliation:
Department of Chemistry, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan
W. Kuang
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
G. Li
Affiliation:
Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899, USA
B. J. Lynch
Affiliation:
Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
T. Lüftinger
Affiliation:
Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
J. G. Luhmann
Affiliation:
Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
H. Maehara
Affiliation:
Subaru Telescope Okayama Branch Office, NAOJ, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-02, Japan
M. G. Mlynczak
Affiliation:
NASA/LaRC, Hampton, VA, USA
Y. Notsu
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan
R. A. Osten
Affiliation:
Space Telescope Science Institute & Johns Hopkins University, MD, USA
R. M. Ramirez
Affiliation:
Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Tokyo152-8550, Japan
S. Rugheimer
Affiliation:
Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of St. Andrews, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL, UK
M. Scheucher
Affiliation:
Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623Berlin, Germany
J. E. Schlieder
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA
K. Shibata
Affiliation:
Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto606-8502, Japan
C. Sousa-Silva
Affiliation:
Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139, USA
V. Stamenković
Affiliation:
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
R. J. Strangeway
Affiliation:
University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
A. V. Usmanov
Affiliation:
Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, USA University of Delaware, DE19716, USA
P. Vergados
Affiliation:
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
O. P. Verkhoglyadova
Affiliation:
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA
A. A. Vidotto
Affiliation:
Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
M. Voytek
Affiliation:
NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, USA
M. J. Way
Affiliation:
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, USA
G. P. Zank
Affiliation:
Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899, USA
Y. Yamashiki
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability (GSAIS), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Corresponding

Abstract

The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

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