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  • Cited by 4
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Miller, James D. and Felton, D. 2016. The Fermi Paradox, Bayes’ Rule, and Existential Risk Management. Futures,

    Ćirković, Milan M. Vukotić, Branislav and Dragićević, Ivana 2009. Galactic Punctuated Equilibrium: How to Undermine Carter's Anthropic Argument in Astrobiology. Astrobiology, Vol. 9, Issue. 5, p. 491.

    Ćirković, Milan M. 2007. Evolutionary catastrophes and the Goldilocks problem. International Journal of Astrobiology, Vol. 6, Issue. 04,

    Tipler, F J 2005. The structure of the world from pure numbers. Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 68, Issue. 4, p. 897.

  • International Journal of Astrobiology, Volume 2, Issue 2
  • April 2003, pp. 141-148

Intelligent life in cosmology

  • Frank J. Tipler (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 11 November 2003

I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

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International Journal of Astrobiology
  • ISSN: 1473-5504
  • EISSN: 1475-3006
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-astrobiology
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