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“BUY LOCAL” OR “BUY JEWISH”? SEPARATIST CONSUMPTION IN INTERWAR PALESTINE

  • Hizky Shoham
Abstract

The article explores the Zionist cultural economy in interwar Palestine, by studying the emergence of the field of consumption as an arena for political struggles among Jews and between Jews and Arabs. The Jewish nationalist movement employed dominant contemporary assumptions about economic nationalism in attempts to politicize the economy of British Palestine, including through campaigns advocating ethnonational separatism in consumption. Unlike other “buy local” movements around the world, these were not directed solely against imports; rather, they were often “buy Jewish” campaigns waged against the consumption of commodities produced by the rival ethnonational sector in Palestine. Using a variety of archival and media sources, the article tracks the development of Jewish separatist consumption campaigns in interwar Palestine, uncovering a gradual amplification of their ethnonational emphasis that paralleled the escalation of the Arab–Jewish conflict. The cultural mechanisms used to attribute ethnic qualities to objects and define them as either “Jewish” or “foreign” are analyzed with particular attention to the conceptual contradictions in the definitions of a Jewish product, which were shaped by economic conflicts and the diverse political conceptions of Jewish identity. The study of separatist consumption sheds new light on the “dual society” thesis, revealing the deep grip of separatist approaches across multiple layers of the Jewish middle class in the Yishuv.

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Corresponding author
Hizky Shoham is a Fellow at the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem and at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; e-mail: hizky.shoham@gmail.com
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NOTES

Author's note: I express my deep gratitude to my two academic homes in the last few years: the program for Judaic Studies at Yale University and the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem. I am grateful to the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies and its president, David Ariel, for the kind support. The project was also funded by the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture. Kobi Metzer, Relli Shechter, Nahum Gross, Nahum Karlinsky, Liora Halperin, and Debbie Bernstein gave useful advice in different stages of the project. Galya Hasharoni, Andrea Stanton, and Sherene Seikaly generously shared unpublished works. Donna Divine, Derek Penslar, and Orit Rozin made important comments on conference presentations and Dafna Hirsch read an earlier version and offered valuable insights. I am grateful to the editors and readers of IJMES for their meticulous reading and constructive comments. Most of all, I am grateful to Professor Paula E. Hyman (1946–2011) for her immense encouragement and endless support, to this particular project and so much else. Paula was a pathbreaking scholar, a passionate intellectual, and a dedicated and generous mentor. I miss her.

1 Douglas, Mary and Isherwood, Baron, The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption (London and New York: Routledge, 1996[1979]); Sassatelli, Roberta, Consumer Culture: History, Theory and Politics (London: Sage, 2007).

2 Appadurai, Arjun, ed., The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). See also Daunton, Martin and Hilton, Mathew, eds., The Politics of Consumption: Material Culture and Citizenship in Europe and America (Oxford and New York: Berg, 2001).

3 Levi-Faur, David, “Economic Nationalism: From Friedrich List to Robert Reich,” Review of International Studies 23 (1997): 359–70, quote at 360.

4 Keynes, J. M., “National Self-Sufficiency,” Yale Review 22 (1933): 755–69; Kofman, J., Economic Nationalism and Development: Central and Eastern Europe between the Two World Wars (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997); Berend, Ivan T., “The Failure of Economic Nationalism: Central and Eastern Europe before World War I,” Revue Economique 51 (2000): 315–22.

5 Kofman, J., “How to Define Economic Nationalism? A Critical Review of Some Old and New Standpoints,” in Economic Nationalism in East-Central Europe and South America, 1918–1939, ed. Szlajfer, Henryk (Geneva: Droz, 1990), 1754; EzzelArab, Abdelazziz, European Control and Egyptian Traditional Elite – A Case Study in Elite Economic Nationalism (Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2002); Chakrabarti, Manali, “Why Did Indian Big Business Pursue a Policy of Economic Nationalism in the Interwar Years? A New Window to an Old Debate,” Modern Asian Studies 43 (2009): 9791038.

6 Constantine, Stephen, “The Buy British Campaign of 1931,” European Journal of Marketing 21, no. 4 (1993): 4459; Frank, Dana, Buy American: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999); Gerth, Karl, China Made: Consumer Culture and the Creation of the Nation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003).

7 Reynolds, Nancy, A City Consumed: Urban Commerce, the Cairo Fire, and the Politics of Decolonization in Egypt (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2012), 80.

8 Frierson, Elizabeth B., “Cheap and Easy: The Creation of Consumer Culture in Late Ottoman Society,” in Consumption Studies and the History of the Ottoman Empire, 1550–1922: An Introduction, ed. Quataert, Donald (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2000), 246; Campos, Michelle, Ottoman Brothers: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Early Twentieth-Century Palestine (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2011), 100108.

9 Stanton, Andrea, “‘Palestinians Invade the Lebanon’: Mandate-Era Tourism and National Branding,” conference paper, MESA 2009, Boston.

10 On Mandate Palestine, see Bernstein, Deborah and Hasisi, Badi, “‘Buy and Promote the National Cause’: Consumption, Class Formation and Nationalism in Mandate Palestine Society,” Nations and Nationalism 14 (2008): 127–50; Sherene Seikaly, “Meatless Days: Consumption and Capitalism in Wartime Palestine 1939–1948” (PhD diss., New York University, 2007); and idem, “Arab Businessmen Challenge the 1940s Status Quo,” Mediterraneans 14 (2010): 85–92. On other areas of the Middle East, see Thompson, Elizabeth, Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privileges and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 175–83; Russell, Mona, Creating the New Egyptian Woman: Consumerism, Education, and National Identity, 1963–1922 (New York: Palgrave, 2004), 7377; Shechter, Relli, “The Cultural Economy of Development in Egypt: Economic Nationalism, Hidden Economy and the Emergence of Mass Consumer Society during Sadat's infitah,” Middle Eastern Studies 44 (2008): 571–83;Reynolds, Nancy, “National Socks and the ‘Nylon Woman’: Materiality, Gender, and Nationalism in Textile Marketing in Semicolonial Egypt, 1930–1956,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 43 (2011): 4974; and idem, A City Consumed.

11 See esp. Helman, Anat, Young Tel Aviv: A Tale of Two Cities, trans. Watzman, Haim (Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University Press, 2010).

12 Shapira, Anita, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881–1948, trans. Templer, William (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 83126; Hirsch, Dafna, “‘We Are Here to Bring the West, Not Only to Ourselves’: Zionist Occidentalism and the Discourse of Hygiene in Mandate Palestine,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 41 (2009): 577–94.

13 Horowitz, Dan and Lissak, Moshe, Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978); Kimmerling, Baruch, “Yahasey Medina-Hevra Beyisrael” (State and Society in Israel), in ha-Hevrah ha-Yisraʾelit: Hebetim Bikortiyim (Israeli Society: Critical Aspects), ed. Ram, Uri (Tel Aviv: Bererot, 1993), 328–45.

14 Krampf, Arie, “Reception of the Developmental Approach in the Jewish Economic Discourse of Mandatory Palestine, 1934–1938,” Israel Studies 15 (2010): 80103.

15 Metzer, Jacob, “Kalkalat Eretz Yisraʾel bi-Tekufat ha-Mandat: Mabat al Hitpathut ha-Mehkar” (The Economy of British Palestine: A Survey of Research Literature), Kalkalah ve-Hevrah bi-Yemey ha-Mandat, 1918–1948 (Economy and Society in the Mandate Period), ed. Bareli, Avi and Karlinsky, Nahum (Be'er Sheva, Israel: Ben-Gurion University, 2003), 757, esp. 43. For a succinct treatment of land struggles, see Kimmerling, Baruch, Zionism and Territory: The Socio-Territorial Dimensions of Zionist Politics (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, 1983); Kark, Ruth, ed., Geʾulat ha-Karkaʿ be-Eretz Yisraʾel: Raʾayon u-Maʿaseh (The Redemption of the Land in Palestine: Theory and Practice) (Jerusalem: Yad Ben-Zvi, 1990); and Smith, Barbara J., The Roots of Separatism in Palestine: British Economic Policy 1920–1929 (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1993), 85116. On labor see ibid., 135–59; Lockman, Zachary, Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906–1948 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1996); and Bernstein, Deborah S., Constructing Boundaries: Jewish and Arab Workers in Mandatory Palestine (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2000).

16 Bernstein and Hasisi, “‘Buy and Promote the National Cause’”; Seikaly, “Arab Businessmen Challenge”; idem, “Meatless Days.”

17 “ʿIton ha-Mufti ʿal Purim be-Tel Aviv” (The Mufti's Newspaper about Purim in Tel Aviv), Ha-aretz, 5 March 1934; “Bein Skheineinu” (Among our Neighbors), Davar, 8 December 1925, 4; “ba-ʿItonut ha-ʿAravit” (In the Arab Press), Doʾar ha-Yom, 12 March 1933; “me-ha-ʿItonut ha-ʿAravit” (From the Arab Press), Ha-aretz, 15 March 1933.

18 Drummond, Ian M., British Economic Policy and the Empire, 1919–1939 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1972), 1725.

19 From Dr. A. Marcus to P. Rotenstreich, a report on prices of Palestinian and Syrian products in local markets, 31 January 1938, Central Zionist Archives (hereafter CZA) S54/327. See also Horowitz, David, Aspects of Economic Policy in Palestine (Jerusalem: The Jewish Agency, 1936), 5768; A Survey of Palestine, 3 vols. (Jerusalem: Government Printer, 1946), 2:441–42; and Metzer, , The Divided Economy of Mandate Palestine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 164–65.

20 Smith, The Roots of Separatism, 20–25; Galya Hasharoni, “Shinayim Totavot, Shokolad ve-Itriyot: ha-Taʿasiyah ha-ʿIvrit be-ʿAsor ha-Rishon la-Mandat 1919–1929 – Hebetim Hevratiyim ve-Kakaliyim” (False Teeth, Chocolate, and Noodles: The Hebrew Industry in the First Decade of the British Mandate, 1919–1929—Economic and Social Aspects) (master's thesis, Haifa University, 2008), 115. On the Egyptian boycott, see Shechter, “The Cultural Economy of Development”; Reynolds, “National Socks,” 52; and idem, A City Consumed, 78–113, esp. 84.

21 Survey of Palestine, 3:570.

22 Halamish, Aviva, “Eretz Yisraʾel ha-Mandatorit: Hevrah Duʾalit o Metsiʾut Koloniʾalit?” (Mandatory Palestine: Dual Society or Colonial Reality?), Zemanim 92 (2005): 125.

23 Survey of Palestine, 2:373, 3:570; Giladi, Dan, ha-Yishuv bi-Tekufat ha-ʿAliyah ha-Reviʿit (1924–1929): Behinah Kalkalit u-Folitit (The Yishuv during the Fourth Immigration (1924–1929): A Political–Economic Study) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1973), 2435; Smith, The Roots of Separatism, 167–81; Metzer, The Divided Economy, 117–37, 145–75, 167–68; Gross, Nahum, Lo ʿal ha-Ruah Levadah: ʿIyunim ba-Historiyah ha-Kalkalit shel Eretz Yisraʾel ba-ʿEt ha-Hadashah (Not on the Spirit Alone: Studies on the Economic History of Modern Palestine) (Jerusalem: Magnes, 2000), 383; Seikaly, “Meatless Days”; idem, “Arab Businessmen Challenge,” 91; Shafir, Gershon, “Capitalist Binationalism in Mandatory Palestine,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 43 (2011): 611–33. See also: From the Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets to the Jewish agency, 7 May 1940, supplement C, CZA J1/4461.

24 Survey of Palestine, 3:570; Seikaly, “Arab Businessmen Challenge,” 91; Metzer, The Divided Economy, 167–68.

25 Metzer, The Divided Economy, 171.

26 Smith, The Roots of Separatism, 160–81.

27 Simoni, Marcella, “At the Roots of Division: A New Perspective on Arabs and Jews, 1930–39,” Middle Eastern Studies 36, no. 3 (2000): 5292; Smith, The Roots of Separatism; Metzer, The Divided Economy, 23.

28 Helman, Anat, “European Jews in the Levant Heat: Climate and Culture in 1920s and 1930s Tel Aviv,” Journal of Israeli History 22 (2003): 7190, esp. 79.

29 Liora Halperin, “Babel in Zion: The Politics of Language Diversity in Jewish Palestine 1920–1948” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2011), 41–104.

30 Shapira, Land and Power; Neumann, Boaz, Territory and Desire in Early Zionism (Waltham, Mass.: University Press of New England, 2011).

31 These were mostly Arab but sometimes also German-Templar. See “Matsav Shuk ha-Halav be-Tel Aviv” (The Condition of the Milk Market in Tel Aviv), from Yehiel Halevi to Mayor Dizengoff, 11 December 1935, Tel Aviv Municipal Archive (hereafter TAMA) 04–3041. On the difference between the two categories see Halperin, “Babel in Zion,” 41–104.

32 From the Council for Domestic Products, Tel Aviv, to Tishby, the Zionist Executive, Jerusalem, 20 December 1923; from the Palestine Commercial Agency to the JNF, 11 March 1928, CZA KKL5/2447; “Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets: Takanon” (Union for Jewish Products: Regulations), undated, CZA S54/165.

33 From the secretary of the political department of the Jewish Agency (Haim Arlozorov) to the Palestine Association for Citron Growers, 28 February 1933, CZA 156/181.

34 From Dr. Pinhas Rotenstreich to the Jewish Agency Executive, 30 December 1936, CZA S54/166.

35 From Nahum Tishby to Dr. A. Schmurak, 23 February 1939, CZA S8/385/1.

36 “Lizroʿa, lintoʿa, ve-livnot” (To Sow, Plant, and Build), ha-Tsfirah, 11 August 1920, 2.

37 Aldubi, Menahem, “Totseret ha-Arets” (The Land's Products), Kuntres 139 (20 August 1923): 1920.

38 Tidhar, David, Entsiklopediyah la-Halutzey ha-Yishuv u-Vonav (Encyclopedia of the Yishuv's Pioneers and Builders), vol. 10 (Tel Aviv: Sifriyat Rishonim, 1947–71), 3616.

39 From Nahum Tishby to Mrs. Helene Hanna Thon, 30 April 1930, CZA S8/2247a.

40 Hasharoni, “Shinayim Totavot,” 109.

41 Ibid., 111–16; Karlinsky, Nahum, California Dreamers: Ideology, Society and Technology in the Citrus Industry in Palestine, 1890–1939, trans. Greenwood, Naftali (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 2005).

42 “Sekirah ʿal ha-Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, Peʿulotav ve-Heseigav” (A Survey of the Union for the Land's Products, Its Actions and Achievements), undated (1935), p. 1, CZA S9/1521; “Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets: Takanon” (Union for the Land's Products: Regulations), undated, CZA S54/165.

43 The Lavon labor movement archive, http://www.amalnet.k12.il/LavonInstitute/RightMenu/PostersCollection/תוצרת+הארץ.htm (accessed 12 June 2012).

44 “ʿAlon ha-Givʿah” (The Hill Newsletter) no. 259, 18 February 1937, and no. 281, 13 October 1937, Petah Tikva Municipal archive, file 4419, no. 001.003.001/16.

45 “Ha-Mashber ve-Totseret ha-Arets” (The Downturn and the Land's Products), Davar, 18 June 1926, 3.

46 “Ha-ʿEkronim she-ʿal yesodam naʿasah hozeh bein ha-mahlakah le-mishar ve-taʿasiyah ve-sokhnei totseret ha-arets” (The principles according to which contracts between the Department for Commerce and Industry and the land's products agents are made), undated [1925], CZA S8/2268/1; a newspaper notice, Ha'aretz and Doʾar ha-Yom, 14 January 1925.

47 A contract between Tishby and Haim Sinelnikov, 13 December 1923, CZA S8/2247/1.

48 A recommendation by Y. Avizohar on Yitzhak Cohen, undated [1923–24], CZA S8/2247/1.

49 From Tishby to Yitzhak Cohen, 24 January 1924, CZA S8/2247/1.

50 A report by Ben-David from Petah Tikva, 15 November 1937, CZA S54/165.

51 From ha-Vaʿad ha-Leʾumi Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets to the Zionist Executive, 25 July 1924, CZA S25/631/1; from ha-Vaʿad ha-Leʾumi Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets to the Department of Commerce and Education, 20 July 1925, CZA S8/2268/1; “Sekirah ʿal Mifʿal ha-Tilboshet ha-Ahidah le-Talmidei Beit ha-Sefer ba-Arets bi-Shnat ha-Limudim Tartsakh” (A Report on the School Uniforms Project in Palestine in the Schoolyear 1937/38), Vaʿad ha-Morim Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, 24 July 1938, CZA S9/1521.

52 The decisions of the Tel Aviv municipal Economic Committee, 1 June 1936, TAMA 04–3041.

53 Vincent, Julien, “The Moral Expertise of the British Consumer, c. 1900: A Debate between the Christian Social Union and the Webbs,” in The Expert Consumer: Associations and Professionals in Consumer Society, ed. Chatriot, Alan, Chessel, Marie-Emmanuelle, and Hilton, Mathew (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2006), 3751.

54 Helman, Young Tel Aviv, 77–103; Bernstein and Hasisi, “‘Buy and Promote the National Cause’”; Seikaly, “Meatless Days,” 97–164.

55 Almog, Oz, The Sabra: The Creation of the New Jew, trans. Watzman, Haim (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2000), 209–25.

56 Helman, Anat, Or ve-Yam Hikifuha: Tarbut Tel Avivit bi-Tekufat ha-Mandat (Surrounded by Light and Sea: Tel Aviv Culture during the Mandate) (Haifa: Haifa University Press, 2007), 119. Cf. Grazia, Victoria De with Furlough, Ellen, eds., The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1996); Roberts, Mary Louise, “Gender, Consumption, and Commodity Culture,” American Historical Review 103 (1998): 817–44; Tiersten, Lisa, Marianne in the Market: Envisioning Consumer Society in Fin-de-Siècle France (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2001); and Hilton, Matthew, “The Female Consumer and the Politics of Consumption in Twentieth-Century Britain,” Historical Journal 45 (2002): 103–28.

57 Hasharoni, “Shinayim Totavot,” 107–108.

58 “Mikhtavim mi-Tveriya: Aseifah Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets” (Letters from Tiberias: A Conference for the Land's Products), undated [1925], CZA S8/2268/1.

59 Stern, Batsheva Margalit, “Imahot ba-Hazit: ha-Maʿavak Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets ve-ha-ʿImut bein Interesim Migdariyim le-Interesim le-Umiyim” (Mothers on the Front: The Struggle for the Land's Products and the Conflict between Gender and Nationalist Interests), Israel 11 (2007): 91120.

60 Lea W-tz, “Hovat ha-Ishah” (Woman's Duty), ʿAl ha-Mishmar–Bamah Hofshit, undated, pp. 2–3, CZA S8/2267/1.

61 On images of women in Zionist culture see Elboym-Dror, Rachel, “ha-Isha ha-Tsiyonit ha-Idiʾalit” (The Ideal Zionist Woman), in Hatishmaʿ Koli? Yitsugim shel Nashim ba-Tarbut ha-Yisraʾelit (Will You Hear My Voice? Feminine Representations in Israeli Culture), ed. Atzmon, Yael (Jerusalem and Tel Aviv: Van Leer Institute and ha-Kibbutz ha-Meʿuhad, 1995), 95115; and Helman, Young Tel Aviv, 89–92. Cf. Seikaly, “Meatless Days,” 97–164.

62 “La-Tsarkhan: Taʿasiyat ha-Tekstil be-Eretz Yisraʾel” (For the Consumer: The Textile Industry in Palestine), published by Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, January 1939, CZA S46/286; “ha-Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets—ʿalon halbasha mispar 1” (The Center for the Land's Products—Textile Newsletter No. 1), February 1940, CZA J1/4461.

63 Minutes, the meeting of the committee of the Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, 6 October 1937.

64 From Tishby to Dr. Luria, the education committee, Zionist executive, 7 November 1923, CZA S8/2247/1. See also: minutes, a meeting of ha-Vaʿad Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets in the department for urban settlement, 24 February 1927, CZA S8/2267/1.

65 “Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets: Yediʿot” (The Center for the Land's Products: Newsletter), issue 1, August 1937, pp. 21–22, CZA A156/181. Cf. Spring, Joel, Educating the Consumer-Citizen: A History of the Marriage of Schools, Advertising, and Media (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 2003)

66 See, for example, Tishby's complaints in 1923 in his letter to Mr. Moshe Katz, Rishon le-Tsion, 28 June 1923, CZA S8/2247/1; and “ʿAl Irgun ha-Peʿulah Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets” (Organizing the Activity for the Land's Products), Davar, 29 August 1929, 2. Cf. Constantine, “The Buy British Campaign”; Frank, Buy American, xii.

67 Metzer, The Divided Economy, 167–71; from Mayor Bloch to deputy mayor Israel Rokach, 29 August 1929; Anonymous memorandum to Dizengoff, 24 October 1929–TAMA 04-3040. On the Arab side, See Bernstein and Hasisi, “‘Buy and Promote the National Cause.’”

68 A report about shoes imported to Palestine, submitted to the standing committee for commerce and industry, 21 April 1929; “Tenuʿat Ihud bein ha-Yatzranim ha-Yehudim ve-ha-ʿAravim” (Unification of Jewish and Arab Manufacturers), undated [from October 1930], CZA S25/7317a.

69 From Colonel Kish to the political department of the Jewish Agency, 9 December 1930, CZA S25/7317/2; from Tishby to the Executive, 12 December 1930, CZA S25/7317/2.

70 “Zaʿakat ʿOvdim” (Cry of Workers), Davar, 15 October 1930, 4. See also an anonymous report about Jewish production, 7 February 1938, p. 3, “Naʿalayim” (Shoes), CZA S54/165.

71 “Reshimah Shehorah” (Black List), Doʾar-ha-Yom, 14 December 1930, 4.

72 Lockman, Zachary, “Arab Workers and Arab Nationalism in Palestine: A View from Below,” in Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East, ed. Jankowski, James and Gershoni, Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 249–72; Yazbak, Mahmoud, “From Poverty to Revolt: Economic Factors in the Outbreak of the 1936 Rebellion in Palestine,” Middle Eastern Studies 36 (2000): 93113.

73 From Bar-Kokhba Meirovitch to Eliezer Kaplan, 26 November 1935, CZA S9/1521; Livni, Yitzhak, ha-Maʾavak she-Nishkah: ha-Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets: ha-Mahlakah ha-Haklaʾit 1936–1949 (The Forgotten Struggle: The Union for the Land's Products: The Department of Agriculture 1936–1949) (Netanya: self-published, 1990), 511.

74 Ibid., 20–22; Karlinsky, California Dreamers, 44.

75 Minutes of the meeting of the secretaries of the Igudim Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets with the Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, 31 May 1936, p. 1, CZA S9/1521.

76 The decisions of the economic committee, 1 June 1936, TAMA 04–3041.

77 The decisions of the economic committee, 21 July 1936, TAMA 04–3041.

78 Stern, “Imahot ba-Hazit,” 105.

79 LeVine, Mark, Overthrowing Geography: Jaffa, Tel Aviv, and the Struggle for Palestine 1880–1948 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005); Azaryahu, Maoz, Tel Aviv: Mythography of a City (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2007); Shoham, Hizky, “Tel Aviv's Foundation Myth: A Constructive Perspective,” in Tel Aviv, the First Century: Visions, Designs, Actualities, ed. Azaryahu, Maoz and Troen, S. Ilan(Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2011), 3459.

80 The decisions of the economic committee, 7 June 1936, TAMA 04–3041.

81 On the searches see: from Dr. Rotenstreich to the Jewish Agency Executive, 30 December 1936, and a handwritten remark by Dr. Santor there, CZA S54–165; from the Merkaz to Eliezer Kaplan, 3 January 1937, CZA S25/7317a; from Rotenstreich to Shertok, 29 January 1937, CZA S54/165; from lawyers Shohat-Kaduri, Tel Aviv, to lawyer Bernard Joseph, Jerusalem, 31 January 1937, CZA S25/7317/2. On the fines, see “Sekirah ʿal ha-Bikur bi-Yerushalayim” (Report on the Visit to Jerusalem), by members Ben-David and Lipson, 10 October 1937, p. 1, CZA S54–165.

82 See the poster of Brit Neʾemanei ha-Totseret (The Products’ Loyalty Alliance), CZA J1/4461.

83 “Sekirah li-Shnat Tartsat” (Overview for 1939), the agricultural department of the Tel Aviv, Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, CZA J1/4461, pp. 2–3.

84 Livni, ha-Maʾavak she-Nishkah, 7–9, 17.

85 Cf. Seikaly, “Arab Businessmen Challenge”; idem, “Meatless Days.”

86 Cf. Frank, Buy American, 61–64.

87 Halperin, “Babel in Zion.”

88 From Yehuda Neifeld to Tishby, 18 October 1923, CZA S8/2247/1.

89 From Tishby to Yitzhak Cohen, 24 August 1924; from “Mishmeret ha-Shabbat” (The Sabbath Watch) to Tishby, 5 November 1924, CZA S8/2247/1.

90 Karlinsky, California Dreamers, 113–15; Shafir, “Capitalist Binationalism.”

91 From the Yitzhar factory to Dr. Rotenstreich, the Jewish agency, 23 December 1935, CZA S54/165; Minutes from a meeting of representatives of workers and industrialists regarding the land's products, 27 January 1927.

92 Shapira, Anita, ha-Halikhah ʿal Kav ha-Ofek (Walking on the Horizon) (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1988).

93 Minutes from the meeting of the Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets with the Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, 2 April 1936, p. 2, CZA S9/1521.

94 Gross, Lo ʿal ha-Ruah, 185.

95 From the Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets to the Haifa office, 9 February 1938, CZA S9/1521.

96 From the greengrocers to the mayor of Tel Aviv, 8 January 1930, TAMA 04–3040.

97 “Zikhron devarim me-ha-Pegishah” (Minutes of the Meeting) between representatives of Jewish agency, national executive, the Merkaz, and the farmers’ association, 7 June 1937, CZA S54/165; “Maskanot ha-Vaʿadah le-Beirur Milui Tenaʾei ha-Heskem bein Golan ve-ha-Merkaz Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets” (The Committee for Investigating the Fulfillment of the Agreement between Golan and the Merkaz: Conclusions), 6 April 1937, CZA S54/165; from Yitzhak Gruenbaum to F. Rotenshtreich, 19 May 1937, CZA S9/1521.

98 From Rotenstreich to the Merkaz, 19 January 1937, and response, 21 January 1937, CZA S54/165.

99 “Zikhron Devarim me-ha-Pegishah she-Hitkeimah ba-Sokhnut ha-Yehudit be-Yom 7.6.1937” (Minutes from the Meeting in the Jewish Agency on 7 June 1937), CZA S54/165.

100 Appadurai, The Social Life of Things, 13.

101 The decisions of the Economic Committee, 17 June 1936, TAMA 04–3041.

102 Minutes of the committee for the examination of the land's products, 16 June 1936, CZA S54/165.

103 Today, according to the Manufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI), at least 35 percent of a product's value should be produced in Israel in order to be labeled as “produced in Israel.” See http://www.industry.org.il/?CategoryID=1821 (accessed 23 August 2011).

104 Douglas, Mary, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York: Praeger, 1966).

105 Minutes of the meeting of the secretaries of the Igudim Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets with the Merkaz, 31 May 1936, p. 1.

106 From Tishby to the Moʿatsah Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, Tel Aviv, 2 December 1923, CZA S8/2247/1.

107 “Sekirah ʿal ha-Igud Lemaʿan Totseret ha-Arets, Peʿulotav ve-Heseigav” (A Survey of the Union for the Land's Products, Its Actions and Achievements), undated (1935), p. 2, CZA S9/1521.

108 Livni, ha-Maʾavak she-Nishkah, 5; Minutes of the committee for examination and improvement of the land's products, 1 July 1936, CZA S54/165.

109 From Tishby to Mordechai Ben-Hillel Hacohen, 30 April 1925, CZA S8/2268/1.

110 From Yitzhak Cohen to Tishby, 19 February 1925, CZA S8/2268/1.

111 Shamir, Ronen, “The Hebrew Law of Peace: The Demise of Law-as-Culture in Early Mandate Palestine,” in The History of Law in a Multi-Cultural Society: Israel 1917–1967, ed. Haris, Ronet al. (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), 105–20.

112 A notice by the Department of Commerce and Industry, Davar, 16 June 1925, 3.

113 See Halamish, “Eretz Yisraʾel ha-Mandatorit”; Seikaly, “Meatless Days,” 7–11; Razi, Tammy, “Yehudiyot-ʿArviyot: Etniyut, Leʾumiyut u-Migdar be-Tel Aviv Hamandatorit” (Arab–Jewish Women: Ethnicity, Nationality and Gender in Mandatory Tel Aviv), Teʾoriyah u-Vikoret 38–39 (2011): 137–60; and Shafir, “Capitalist Binationalism.”

114 Horowitz and Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity; Kimmerling, “Yahasey Medinah-Hevrah.”

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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