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Rural Revolt and Provincial Society in Egypt, 1820–1824

  • Fred H. Lawson (a1)
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Given Gabriel Baer's 1962 study “Submissiveness and Revolt of the Fellah,” there should be no more talk of the political passivity of Egyptian peasants and their rural neighbors during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Baer demonstrates that rural uprisings were frequent and widespread during the years just before and on into the regime of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Furthermore, he describes three series of provincial rebellions which were significantly larger and better organized than any that preceded them. These three series of rebellions, which are associated with the village of as-Salimiyyah between Qina and Farshut in 1820–1821, with that of al-Ba'irat opposite Luqsur in 1822–1823, and with virtually the whole of Qina province in 1824, illustrate both that a very large number of people in this region would actively support an antigovernment leader during the 1820s and that these people were willing and able to establish effective and legitimate governmental institutions of their own on a local level.

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Author' note: Robert Jervis and Judith Goldstein made suggestions which improved this study considerably.

1 Eric, Hobsbawm discusses this sort of social protest in his Primitive Rebels (New York: Norton, 1959).

2 Gabriel, Baer, Studies in the Social History of Modern Egypt (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), p. 97.

3 Such views are criticized in Edward, Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past and Present, 50 (02 1971), 7679.

4 Baer, , Studies, p. 108.

5 On the importance of power in social historical studies, see Tony, Judt, “A Clown in Regal Purple: Social History and the Historians,” History Workshop, 7 (Spring 1979), 6694; on this particular definition of power, see George, Catlin, Systematic Politics (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962); for a study which demonstrates the politics of a supposedly nonpolitical group, see Temma, Kaplan, Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868–1903 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977).

6 See Rod, Aya, “Theories of Revolution Reconsidered: Contrasting Models of Collective Violence,” Theory and Society, 8 (07 1979), 3999;Steven, Lukes, Power: A Radical View (London: Macmillan, 1974).

7 Baer, , Studies, p. 97.

8 Helen, Rivlin, The Agricultural Policy ofMuhammadAli in Egypt (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961), pp. 5253;Stanford, Shaw, Ottoman Egypt in the Age of the French Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 1966), pp. 118122;André, Raymond, Artisans et Commerçants au Caire au X Ville Siàcle (Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 19731974), 1, 103; see also Alan, Richards, “Egypt's Agriculture in Trouble,” MERIP Reports, 84 (01 1980), 313.

9 Sauveur, Lusignan, A History of the Revolt of Ali Bey (London: James Phillips, 1784), p. 24.

10 John, J. A. St., Egypt and Nubia (London: Chapman and Hall, 1845), p. 345.

11 Vivant, Denon, Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt (New York: Arno Press, 1973), II, 25.

12 Charles, Irby and James, Mangles, Travels in Egypt and Nubia (London: John Murray, 1844), p. 40;John, J. A. St., Isis: An Egyptian Pilgrimage (London: Longman, 1853), II, 266267.

13 lrby, and Mangles, , Travels, pp. 3940.

14 Douin, G. and Fawtier-Jones, E. C., L'Angleierre et l'égypte: La Politique Mameluke (Cairo: Société Royale de Géographic d'égypte, 1929), 1, 416.

15 Denon, , Travels, I, 318.

16 Girard, P. S., “Mémoire sur l'Agriculture et le Commerce de la Haute égypte,” La Décade égyptienne (Beirut: Librairie Byblos, n.d.), pp. 4853.

17 Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L'Angleterre, 1, 411.

18 Ed. de, Montule, Voyage en Amerique, en Italie, en Sicile et en égypte (Paris: Delauney, 1821), p. 273;James, Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (Edinburgh: A. Constable and Co., 1805), II, 23 and 10;Denon, , Travels, 2, 139.

19 Henry, Light, Travels in Egypt, Nubia … in the year 1814 (London: Rodwell and Martin, 1818), pp. 46 and 104;Bruce, , Travels, 2, 16.

20 Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L'Angleterre, 2 251.

21 Ibid I, 416.

22 Light, , Travels, p. 48.

23 St., John, Egypt and Nubia, p. 348.

24 Denon, , Travels, 1, 377;St., John, Egypt and Nubia, p. 348;Irby, and Mangles, , Travels, p. 47;Girard, , “Mémoire,” p. 49;Heyworth-Dunne, J., “A Selection of Cairo's Street Cries,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 9 (1938), 353.

25 Denon, , Travels, 2, 199.

26 Rousseau, M. F., Kléber et Menou en Egypte (Paris: Alphonse Picard, 1900), p. 38.Denon, , Travels, 2, 138.

27 Light, , Travels, p.42;Rodkey, F. S., “Colonel Campbell's Report on Egypt in 1840,” Cambridge Historical Journal, 3 (1929), 114.

28 lgnatius, Pallme, Travels in Kordofan (London: J. Madden, 1844), p. 41.

29 lrby, and Mangles, , Travels, p. 5;Pallme, , Travels, p. 255.

30 John, St., Egypt and Nubia, p. 344;Bruce, , Travels, 2, 61.

31 It is significant for the argument of this paper that Kordofan to the south of Nubia produced basically identical crops to those of Upper Egypt and earned on similar trading relationships with Cairo and Lower Egypt, but did not rise in rebellion against Egypt's central government during the period under consideration. See Pallme, , Travels, 2, 218.

32 John, St., Isis, 2, 120;Denon, , Travels, 2, 226.

33 Armando, Cortesao, ed., The Summa Oriental of Tome Pires (London: Hakluyt Society, 1944), pp. 1213.

34 William, Foster, ed., The Red Sea and Adjacent Countries at the Close of the Seventeenth Century as Described by Joseph Pitts. William Daniel and Charles Jacques Poncet (London: Hakluyt Society, 1949), p. 11.

35 Cortesao, , Summa Oriental, p. 16.

36 Volney, C.-F., Travels through Egypt and Syria in the years 1783, 1784 and 1785 (New York: John Tiebout, 1798), 1, 135;Frederick, Hasselquist, Voyages and Travels in the Levant (London: L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1766), pp. 8283;David, Kimche, “The Opening of the Red Sea to European Ships in the Late Eighteenth Century,” Middle Eastern Studies, 8 (01 1972), 65.

37 Denon, , Travels, 2, 27.

38 Terence, Walz, “Egypt in Africa,” International Journal of African Historical Studies, 8 (1975), 659.

39 de, Montule, Voyage, 2, 271.

40 Edward, Lane, The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians (London: Dent, 1908), p. 319.

41 Madden, R. R., Travels in Turkey, Egypt, Nubia and Palestine (London: Henry Colburn, 1829), II, 208.

42 Denon, , Travels, 2, 350;Cortesao, , Summa Oriental, p. 17;Ahmad, al-Hittah, Tarikh Misr alIqtisadifi Qarn at-Tasi' Ashr (Cairo: Matba'ah al-Misri, 1967), pp. 215216.

43 Denon, , Travels, 2, 302.

44 [Anonymous], Travels of Ali Bey (Philadelphia: John Conrad, 1816), II, 163.

45 Bruce, , Travels, 1, cclxxv.

46 Ibid., II, 54.

47 Abir, M., “The ‘Arab Rebellion’ of Amir Ghalib of Mecca (1788–1813),Middle Eastern Studies, 7 (05 1971), 193;Denon, , Travels, 2, 296.

48 Girard, , “Mémoire,” pp. 5455;cf., William R. Hamilton, Remarks on Several Parts of Turkey: Aegyptica (London: T. Payne, 1809), p. 421.

49 Raymond, , Artisans et Commerçants, 1, 149.

50 Browne, W. G., Travels in Africa, Egypt, and Syria, from the ear 1792 to 1798 (London: T. Cadell Junior and W. Davies, 1799), p. 145.

51 Stanford, J. Shaw, The Financial and Administrative Organization and Development of Ottoman Egypt, 1517–1798 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 106.

52 Shaw, , Ottoman Egypt in the Age of the French Revolution, p. 133;Jean-Claude Garcin, cf., Un Centre Musulman de Ia Haute-égypte Médiévale: Qus (Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1976).

53 Terence, Walz, Trade between Egypt and Bilad as-Sudan (Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1978), p. 224n;Denon, , Travels, 2, 243.

54 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat ar-Tawfiqiyyah aI-Jadidah (Bulaq edition), 10, 72.

55 Abir, , “The ‘Arab Rebellion’,” p. 193.

56 Travels of Ali Bey, II, 50.

57 Abir, , “The ‘Arab Rebellion’,” p. 197;Travels of Ali Bey, II, 162.

58 Pallme, , Travels, p. 289.

59 de, Montule, Voyage, 2, 218.

60 Lusignan, , History, p. 57.

61 Walz, , Trade, p. 34.

62 Ibid., p. 37.

63 Ibid., p. 48.

64 Lane, , Manners, p. 319.

65 Walz, , Trade, p. 30.

66 Walz, , “Egypt in Africa,” p. 657.

67 Walz, , Trade, pp. 232233 and 235.

68 Ibid., p. 246.

69 de, Montule, Voyage, 2, 198.

70 Madden, , Travels, 2, 126.

71 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 11, 14.

72 John, St., Isis, 2, 118.

73 Denon, , Travels, 2, 300301.

74 Ibid., p. 27.

75 Ibid., p. 31.

76 Foster, , The Red Sea, p. 107;Pallme, , Travels, pp. 283287;Bruce, , Travels, 1, xcvi.

77 Bruce, , Travels, 4, 250;Walz, , Trade, p. 40.

78 For the political importance of artisan groups, see Thompson, E. P., The Making of the English Working Class (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1968);Christopher, Hill, The World Turned Upside Down (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1975);Charles, Tilly, The Vendée (New York: Wiley, 1964); and his review of Hobsbawm, and Rudé, , Captain Swing in the Journal of Social History, 4 (Winter 19701971), 163167.

79 Richard, Pococke, A Description of the East (London: W. Bowyer, 1743), 1, 87;de, Montule, Voyage, 2, 193.

80 Denon, , Travels, 3, 4244.

81 Irby, and Mangles, , Travels, p. 37.

82 Pococke, , Description, 1, 84.

83 Girard, , “Memoire,” p. 81.

84 Pallme, , Travels, p. 255.

85 Pococke, , Description, 1, 87.

86 Pallme, , Travels, p. 254.

87 Denon, , Travels, 3, 63.

88 Travels of Ali Bey, II, 113.

89 Alain, Silvera, “Edme-Francois Jomard and Egyptian Reforms. in 1839,” Middle Eastern Studies 7 (10 1971), 310.

90 Moustafa, Fahmy, La Révolution de l'Industrie en égypte et ses Conséquences Sociales 19e Siàcle (18001850) (Leiden: Brill, 1954), p. 2;Crouchley, A. E., “The Development of in the Reign of Mohamed Ali,” L'Egypte Contemporaine, 28 (1937), 311.

91 Becker, C.H., “Asyut,” Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. (Leiden: Brill), I, 728729.

92 Pococke, , Description, 1, 174.

93 Foster, , The Red Sea, p. 93.

94 Bruce, , Travels, 2, 9.

95 Shaw, , Ottoman Egypt, p. 131;Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 16, 78.

96 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 11, 14.

97 Shaw, , Ottoman Egypt, p. 131.

98 Abd, al-Rahim Abd al-Rahman, Village in Ottoman Egypt and Tokugawa Japan–A Comparative Study (Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1977), p. 52.

99 Denon, , Travels, 2, 240.

100 Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L'Anglererre, 1, 417;Shaw, , Ottoman Egypt, p. 131;Owen, E. R. J., Cotton and the Egyptian Economy, 1829–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 6.

101 Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L'Angleterre, 1, 417.

102 Shaw, , Ottoman Egypt, p. 131.

103 Owen, , Cotton, p. 6.

104 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 8, 59.

105 Hasselquist, , Voyages, p. 109.

106 Pallme, , Travels, pp. 253254.

107 Owen, , Cotton, p. 7.

108 Charles, Issawi, ed., Tile Economic History of tile Middle East 1800–1914 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), p. 399.

109 Volney, , Travels, 1, 120;Lusignan, , History, p. 17;Sonnini, C. S., Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt (London: J. Debrett, 1800), p. 669;Light, , Travels, pp. 71 and 96.

110 Bruce, , Travels, 2: 23.

111 Subhi, Labib, “Egyptian Commercial Policy in the Middle Ages,” in Cook, M. A., ed., Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970), p. 73.

112 Pococke, , Description, 1, 173174.

113 Volney, , Travels, 1, 143.

114 Rodkey, , “Colonel Campbell's Report,” p. 113.

115 Walz, , “Egypt in Africa,” p. 663.

116 Walz, , Trade, p. 40 and note.

117 Pallme, , Travels, pp. 221 and 253.

118 Crouchley, , “Development,” p. 306.

119 Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L'Angleterre, 1, 173, 184, 200, and 241.

120 Pococke, , Description, 1, 173174;Lusignan, , History, p. 24.

121 Hasselquist, , Voyages, p. 397;Volney, , Travels, 1, 143;Ralph, Davis, Aleppo and Devonshire Square (London: Macmillan, 1967), p. 202.

122 Jean-Baptiste, Trécourt, Mémoires sur l'égypte (Cairo: La Société Royale de Géographic d'égypte, 1942), pp. 8586;Douin, and Fawtier-Jones, , L-Angleterre, 1, 418 and 419;Crouchley, , “Development,” p. 316.

123 Judith, B. Williams, British Commercial Policy and Trade Expansion, 1750–1850 (Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1972), p. 106.

124 Jerome, Lobo, A Voyage to Abyssinia (London: A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch, 1735), p. 183.

125 Walz, , Trade, p. 224.

126 Walz, , “Egypt in Africa,” p. 659.

127 Murad, Kamil, “Letters to Ethiopia,” Bulletin de Ia Société d'Archéologie Copte, 8 (1942), 89140.

128 Michel, Morineau and Charles, Carriere, “Draps du Langedoc et Commerce du Levant au XVIlle Siàcle,” Revue de Histoire économique et sociale, 46 (1968), 117.

129 Browne, , Travels, p. 9;Abir, , “The ‘Arab Rebellion’,” p. 195.

130 Trécourt, , Memoires, p. 81.

131 Ibid., pp. 86–87.

132 Heinz-Theo, Niephaus, Genuas Seehandel von 1746–1848 (Köln: Bohlau Verlag, 1975), p. 339.

133 Ruggiero, Romano, Le Commerce du Royaume de Naples (Paris: Armand Colin, 1951), pp. 26 and 20–21.

134 Jules, Julliany, Essai sur le Commerce de Marseille (Marseille: Jules Barile, 1842), II, 310 and 358.

135 Ibid., p. 357.

136 édouard, Driault, La Formation de l'Empire de Mohamed Aly (Cairo: Société Royahe de Géographic d'égypte, 1927), p. 274.

137 Vernon, J. Puryear, France and the Levant (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1941), p. 33 n. 33;Ralph, Davis, The Industrial Revolution and Brirish Overseas Trade (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1979), especially pp. 1920.

138 Crouchley, , “Development,” pp. 316317.

139 Lane, , Manners, p. 319.

140 John, St., Isis, 1, 293.

141 Williams, , British Commercial Policy, p. 106.

142 Ibid., p. 112n.

143 Ibid., pp. 107–108.

144 Travels of Ali Bey, II, 50;Walz, , Trade, p. 40.

145 Abd, al-Rahman, Village, p. 60.

146 Williams, , British Commercial Policy, p. 300.

147 Ibid., p. 113.

148 Madden, , Travels, 1, 247.

149 Rodkey, , “Colonel Campbell's Report,” p. 113;Pallme, , Travels, pp. 297299.

150 Peter, Gran, Islamic Roots of Capitalism (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), p. 212;Raymond, , Artisans et Commerçants, 1, 268270;Rivlin, , Agricultural Policy, p. 195.

151 Lane, , Manners, p. 316.

152 Owen, , Cotton, p. 19.

153 Puryear, , France, p. 33 n. 28.

154 Puryear, , “Odessa: Its Rise and International Importance,” Pacific Historical Review, 3 (06 1934), 197.

155 Puryear, , France, p. 33 n. 28;Puryear, , “Odessa,” p. 194 n. 6.

156 de Tegoborski, M L., Commentaries on the Productive Forces of Russia (London: Longman, 1856), II, 329;René Cattaui, cf., ed., Le Ràgne de Mohamed Aly d'apràs Les Archives Russes en égypte (Cairo: Société Royale de Géographie d'égypte, 1931), 1, 2021.

157 Owen, , Cotton, pp. 2526.

158 James, E. Swain, The Struggle for the Control of the Mediterranean Prior to 1848 (Philadelphia: Stratford, 1933), p. 59.

159 Julliany, , Essai, 2, 356;Roger Price, cf., The Economic Modernisation of France (New York: Wiley, 1975), p. 96.

160 de, Tegoborski, Commentaries, 11, 321.

161 On the logic of nonmarket peasant agriculture, see Witold, Kula, An Economic Theory of the Feudal System (London: New Left Books, 1976).

162 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 14, 68.

163 Madden, , Travels, 2, 34.

164 See Eric, Wolf, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century (New York: Harper and Row, 1969);Wolf, , “Peasant Rebellion and Revolution,” in Norman, Miller and Roderick, Aya, eds., National Liberation (New York: The Free Press, 1971);Barrington, Moore Jnr, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966);Aya, , “Theories of Revolution,” p. 74.

165 Williams, , British Commercial Policy, p. 364.

166 For some theoretical problems in using this reasoning in explaining revolutions, see Aya, “Theories of Revolution”; Charles, Tilly, “Revolutions and Collective Violence,” in Fred, Greenstein and Nelson, Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975), III, 483555.

167 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 12, 44.

168 John, St., Egypt and Nubia, pp. 381383. Isna's fortifications at this time are shown clearly in a view of the town in Frederic, L. Norden, The Antiquities, Natural History, Ruins, and Other Curiosities of Egypt, Nubia, and Thebes (London: E. Jeffery, 1792), p. 121.

169 édouard, Driault, L'Expédition de Cràte et de Morée (Cairo: La Société Royale de Géographie d'égypte, 1930), p. 13.

170 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 11, 44;Bruce, , Travels, 2, 24.

171 Sonnini, , Travels, pp. 668 and 649;Pococke, , Description, 1, 99 and 124;Light, , Travels, p. 108;Bruce, , Travels, 2, 33.

172 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 11, 14.

173 Rivlin, , Agricultural Policy, pp. 201202;Baer, , Studies, pp. 9699;Alan, R. Richards, “Primitive Accumulation in Egypt, 1798–1882,” Review, 1 (Fall 1977); 22:Gran, , Islamic Roots, p. 122.

174 Baer, , Studies, p. 97;Denon, , Travels, 2, 32.

175 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 12, 44;Baer, , Studies, p. 96.

176 Ali, Mubarak, al-Khitat, 14, 75.

177 John, St., Egypt and Nubia, p. 381.

178 Ibid., p. 379.

179 Compare, for example, Bindoff, S. T., Ket's Rebellion (London: The Historical Association, 1949); Hill, World Turned Upside Down.

180 Poliak, A. N., “Les Révoltes Populaires en égypte a l'époque des Mamelouks,” Revue des études Islamiques, 3 (1934), 251273.

181 Denon, , Travels, 1, 366 and II, 27;Light, , Travels, pp. 7475.

182 This engagement is still remembered today in a cycle of folk songs commemorating the victory of the townspeople over the forces of Napoleon.

183 Sayyid, Mustafa Salim, Nusus Yamaniyyah 'an al-Hamlah al-Faransiyyah 'ala Misr (Sana': Center for Yamani Studies, 1975), p. 99;Denon, , Travels, 12, 198.

184 Salim, , Nusus, p. 100.

185 John, St., Egypt and Nubia, p. 383.

186 Denon, , Travels, 3, 31.

187 For a similar argument, see Hill, , World Turned Upside Down; Hill, , “From Lollards to Levellers,” in Cornforth, M., ed., Rebels and Their Causes (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1978);Chalmers, A. Johnson, Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962).

188 Samuel, Clark, “The Importance of Agrarian Classes,” British Journal of Sociology, 29 (03 1978), 2240.

189 See Abd, al-Rahman, Village, pp. 2728;Gibb, H.A.R. and Harold, Bowen, Islamic Society and the West, Vol. 1, Part I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950), p. 263;Abd, al-Rahman and Yuzo, Nagata, “The Iltizam System in Egypt and Turkey,” Journal of Asian and African Studies, 14 (1977), 178;Roger, Owen, “al-Jabarti and the Economic History of Late Eighteenth Century Egypt,” in Ahmad, 'Izzat Abd al-Karim, ed., Abd ar-Rahman al-Jabarti (Cairo: General Egyptian Book Organization, 1976), pp. 2425.

190 For the growth of large estates in Egypt between 1815 and 1845, see Ali, Barakat, Tatawwur al-Milkiyyat az-Zi'ra'iyyah fi Misr (Cairo: Dar ath-Thaqafah al-Jadidah, 1977);Gabriel, Baer, A History of Landownership in Modern Egypt (London: Oxford University Press, 1962);Rivlin, , Agricultural Policy, p. 73;Yacoub, Artin-Bey, La Propriété Fonciàre en égypte (Cairo: lmprimerie Nationale, 1883);E. A. Kosminsky, cf., “Service and Money Rents in the Thirteenth Century,” Economic History Review, 1st series, 5 (04 1935), 2445;Jairus, Banaji, “The Peasantry rn the Feudal Mode of Production: Towards an Economic Model,” The Journal of Peasant Studies, 3 (04 1976), 299320.

191 Crouchley, , “Development,” p. 311.

192 The apparent lack of interest among the rebels in any land issues, such as redistribution of holdings, may indicate the extent of freeholder and artisan influence within the rebellions. Rich peasants would not be interested in challenges to established land practices.

193 For this conception, see Aya, “Theories of Revolution.”

194 As Aya, remarks (“Theories of Revolution,” pp. 6869), this perspective is closer to von Clausewitz than it is to most other treatments of collective violence – including Edward Thompson's, which emphasizes the moral or legitimizing aspects of popular revolt; Richard Johnson, cf., “Edward Thompson, Eugene Genovese, and Socialist-Humanist History,” History Workshop, 6 (Autumn 1978), 79100.

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