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2 Murat C. Yıldız, “Strengthening Male Bodies and Building Robust Communities: Physical Culture in the Late Ottoman Empire” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2015); Murat C. Yıldız, “Mapping the ‘Sports Nahda’: Toward a History of Sports in the Modern Middle East,” in Sports, Society, and Politics in the Middle East, ed. Danyel Tobias Reiche and Tamir Sorek (London: C. Hurst & Co, forthcoming).
3 Provence, Michael, The Last Ottoman Generation and the Making of the Modern Middle East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017); Schayegh, Cyrus, The Middle East and the Making of the Modern World (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2017); Falb-Kalisman, Hilary, “‘The Next Generation of Cultivators’: Teaching Agriculture in Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan (1920–1960),” Histoire De L'éducation no. 148 (2019): 143–64.
4 Prestel, Joseph Ben, Emotional Cities: Debates on Urban Change in Berlin and Cairo, 1860–1910 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), 179; “Nadi,” al-Hilal (1 May 1904), 538.
5 Prestel, Emotional Cities, 179; “Nadi,” al-Hilal (1 May 1904), 538.