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    Croke, Kevin 2016. Tools of single party hegemony in Tanzania: evidence from surveys and survey experiments. Democratization, p. 1.

    Çarkoğlu, Alı and Aytaç, S. Erdem 2015. Who gets targeted for vote-buying? Evidence from an augmented list experiment in Turkey. European Political Science Review, Vol. 7, Issue. 04, p. 547.

    Imai, K. Park, B. and Greene, K. F. 2015. Using the Predicted Responses from List Experiments as Explanatory Variables in Regression Models. Political Analysis, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 180.

  • International Journal of Middle East Studies, Volume 44, Issue 3
  • August 2012, pp. 483-505



Vote buying and vote selling are prominent features of electoral politics in Lebanon. This article investigates how vote trafficking works in Lebanese elections and examines how electoral rules and practices contribute to wide and lively vote markets. Using original survey data from the 2009 parliamentary elections, it studies vote selling with a list experiment, a question technique designed to elicit truthful answers to sensitive questions. The data show that over half of the Lebanese sold their votes in 2009. Moreover, once we come to grips with the sensitivity of the topic, the data show that members of all sectarian communities and political alliances sold their votes at similar rates.

Corresponding author
Daniel Corstange is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, New York; e-mail:
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Ezequiel Gonzalez-Ocantos , Chad Kiewiet de Jonge , Carlos Meléndez , Javier Osorio , and David W. Nickerson , “Vote Buying and Social Desirability Bias: Experimental Evidence from Nicaragua,” American Journal of Political Science 56 (2012): 202–17

Matthew J. Streb , Barbara Burrell , Brian Frederick , and Michael A. Genovese , “Social Desirability Effects and Support for a Female American President,” Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (2008): 7689

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International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • ISSN: 0020-7438
  • EISSN: 1471-6380
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-middle-east-studies
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