Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Staley, Kristina and Doherty, Caroline 2016. It’s not evidence, it’s insight: bringing patients’ perspectives into health technology appraisal at NICE. Research Involvement and Engagement, Vol. 2, Issue. 1,

    Bridges, John F.P. Hauber, A. Brett Marshall, Deborah Lloyd, Andrew Prosser, Lisa A. Regier, Dean A. Johnson, F. Reed and Mauskopf, Josephine 2011. Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health—a Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. Value in Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 403.

    Kinter, Elizabeth T. Prior, Thomas J. Carswell, Christopher I. and Bridges, John F. P. 2012. A Comparison of Two Experimental Design Approaches in Applying Conjoint Analysis in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 279.

    Aslakson, Rebecca A Schuster, Anne LR Reardon, Jessica Lynch, Thomas Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina Miller, Judith A Moldovan, Rita Johnston, Fabian Anton, Blair Weiss, Matthew and Bridges, John FP 2015. Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, Vol. 4, Issue. 6, p. 615.

    Schuster, Anne LR Aslakson, Rebecca A and Bridges, John FP 2014. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study. BMC Palliative Care, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Janssen, Inger M. Gerhardus, Ansgar Schröer-Günther, Milly A. and Scheibler, Fülöp 2015. A descriptive review on methods to prioritize outcomes in a health care context. Health Expectations, Vol. 18, Issue. 6, p. 1873.

    Wärdig, Rikard Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta Hultsjö, Sally Lindström, Torbjörn and Foldemo, Anniqa 2015. Persons with psychosis perceptions of participating in a lifestyle intervention. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 24, Issue. 13-14, p. 1815.

    Bridges, John F. P. Slawik, Lara Schmeding, Annette Reimer, Jens Naber, Dieter and Kuhnigk, Olaf 2013. A test of concordance between patient and psychiatrist valuations of multiple treatment goals for schizophrenia. Health Expectations, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 164.

    Trujols, Joan Portella, Maria J. Iraurgi, Ioseba Campins, M. Josefa Siñol, Núria and Cobos, José Pérez de Los 2013. Patient-reported outcome measures: Are they patient-generated, patient-centred or patient-valued?. Journal of Mental Health, Vol. 22, Issue. 6, p. 555.

    Schooler, Nina R. Buchanan, Robert W. Laughren, Thomas Leucht, Stefan Nasrallah, Henry A. Potkin, Steven G. Abi-Saab, Danielle Berardo, Carmen Galani Bugarski-Kirola, Dragana Blaettler, Thomas Edgar, Chris J. Nordstroem, Anna-Lena O'Gorman, Cedric and Garibaldi, George 2015. Defining therapeutic benefit for people with schizophrenia: Focus on negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 162, Issue. 1-3, p. 169.

    Bridges, John FP Gallego, Gisselle Kudo, Masatoshi Okita, Kiwamu Han, Kwang-Hyub Ye, Sheng-Long and Blauvelt, Barri M 2011. Identifying and prioritizing strategies for comprehensive liver cancer control in Asia. BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,

    Danner, Marion Vennedey, Vera Hiligsmann, Mickaël Fauser, Sascha and Stock, Stephanie 2016. Focus Groups in Elderly Ophthalmologic Patients: Setting the Stage for Quantitative Preference Elicitation. The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 47.

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Johanne St-Pierre, Michèle Gauvin, François-Pierre Piron, Florence Rhainds, Marc Coulombe, Martin Lepage-Savary, Dolores Desmartis, Marie Tantchou Dipankui, Mylène and Légaré, France 2012. Involving patients in HTA activities at local level: a study protocol based on the collaboration between researchers and knowledge users. BMC Health Services Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Bridges, John F.P. Cohen, Joshua P. Grist, Peter G. and Mühlbacher, Axel C. 2010. Pharmaceutical Markets and Insurance Worldwide.

    Kinter, Elizabeth T. Prior, Thomas J. Carswell, Christopher I. and Bridges, John F.P. 2012. A Comparison of Two Experimental Design Approaches in Applying Conjoint Analysis in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 279.

    Rotter, Jason S Foerster, Douglas and Bridges, John FP 2012. The changing role of economic evaluation in valuing medical technologies. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 6, p. 711.

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre Desmartis, Marie Gagnon, Johanne St-Pierre, Michèle Gauvin, François-Pierre Rhainds, Marc Lepage-Savary, Dolorès Coulombe, Martin Dipankui, Mylène Tantchou and Légaré, France 2014. Introducing the patient's perspective in hospital health technology assessment (HTA): the views of HTA producers, hospital managers and patients. Health Expectations, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 888.

    Bridges, John F.P. Kinter, Elizabeth T. Schmeding, Annette Rudolph, Ina and Mühlbacher, Axel 2011. Can Patients Diagnosed with Schizophrenia Complete Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis Tasks?. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 267.

  • International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, Volume 25, Issue 1
  • January 2009, pp. 35-41

Identifying patient-relevant endpoints among individuals with schizophrenia: An application of patient-centered health technology assessment

  • Elizabeth T. Kinter (a1), Annette Schmeding (a2), Ina Rudolph (a2), Susan dosReis (a1) and John F. P. Bridges (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2009

Objectives: Schizophrenia imposes a great burden on society, and while evaluation should play an important role in informing society's efforts to alleviate these burdens, it is unclear what “endpoints” should be chosen as the objective of such analyses. The objectives of the study were to elicit endpoints directly from patients with schizophrenia, to ascertain whether patients are sufficiently cognoscente to express what endpoints are and are not important to them and to rank the relevant endpoints.

Methods: We applied principles of patient-centered health technology assessment to identify and value endpoints from the patient's perspective. Focus groups were conducted to elicit endpoints, using interpretive phenomalogical analysis (IPA) to guide the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Patient interviews were subsequently used to elicit patient preference over endpoints. Respondents were presented with cards outlining the endpoints and asked to remove irrelevant cards. They where then asked to identify and rank their five most relevant endpoints in order of importance. Interviews were recorded for the purposed of triangulation, and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Patients were recruited from five geographically diverse cities in Germany. Eligibility required a diagnosis of schizophrenia by a physician and treatment with an antipsychotic medication for at least one year. Respondents were excluded if they were experiencing an acute episode.

Results: Thirteen endpoints emerged as important from the focus groups spanning side-effects, functional status, processes of care and clinical outcomes. Respondents could clearly identify relevant and irrelevant endpoints, and rank which factors were important to them. Triangulation between field notes of the ranking exercise and recordings confirmed that rankings were not arbitrary, but justified from the respondents' point of view.

Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia can express preferences over endpoints. Our results show that qualitative methods such as IPA can be used to identify factors, but ranking exercises provide a more robust method for ranking the importance of endpoints. Future research involving patients with schizophrenia ranking outcomes is needed to identify variations across patients and methods such as conjoint analysis could prove beneficial in identifying acceptable tradeoffs across endpoints.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.R Baker , C Thompson , R Mannion . Q methodology in health economics. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2006;11:3845.

3.B Bandelow , P Muller , W Gaebel , Depressive syndromes in schizophrenic patients after discharge from hospital. ANI Study Group Berlin, Dusseldorf, Gottingen, Munich. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1990;240:113120.

6.SA Bull , XH Hu , EM Hunkeler , Discontinuation of use and switching of antidepressants: Influence of patient-physician communication. JAMA. 2002;288:14031409.

7.E Chapman , R Smith . Interpretative phenomenological analysis and the new genetics. J Health Psychol. 2002;7: 125130.

11.TE Goldberg . Some fairly obvious distinctions between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res. 1999;39:127132.

13.A Haycox . Pharmacoeconomics of long-acting risperidone: Results and validity of cost-effectiveness models. Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23 (Suppl):316.

17.M Knapp , D Chisholm , M Leese , Comparing patterns and costs of schizophrenia care in five European countries: The EPSILON study. European psychiatric services: Inputs linked to outcome domains and needs. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;105:4254.

18.Y Lecrubier , R Perry , G Milligan , Physician observations and perceptions of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A multinational, cross-sectional survey. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:371379.

19.JA Lieberman , TS Stroup , JP McEvoy , Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:12091223.

21.Y Maurer , A. Dittrich [Comparison of psychiatrist's rating and self rating of schizophrenic patients (author's transl)]. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol. 1979;12:375382.

22.JP McEvoy , JA Lieberman , TS Stroup , Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:600610.

23.G Mooney . What else do we want from our health services? Soc Sci Med. 1994;39:151154.

24.D Naber , A Karow . Good tolerability equals good results: The patient's perspective. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;11 (Suppl 4):S391S396.

26.JM Pyne , C Labbate . Ranking of outcome domains for use in real-time outcomes feedback laboratory by patients with schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008. 196:336339.

27.R Rosenheck , S Stroup , R Keefe , Measuring outcome priorities and preferences in people with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:529536.

28.M Ryan . Using conjoint analysis to take account of patient preferences and go beyond health outcomes: An application to in vitro fertilization. Soc Sci Med. 1999;48:535546.

29.P Thomas . The stable patient with schizophrenia–from antipsychotic effectiveness to adherence. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007;17 (Suppl 2):S115-S122.

30.F Vogt , DL Schwappach , JF Bridges . Accounting for tastes: A German perspective on the inclusion of patient preferences in healthcare. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24:419423.

31.EQ Wu , HG Birnbaum , L Shi , The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:11221129.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
  • ISSN: 0266-4623
  • EISSN: 1471-6348
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-technology-assessment-in-health-care
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *