Abdel-Baki, A.-A. S., Mares, M. M., Dkhil, M. A. and Al-Quraishy, S. (2016) First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Saud University - Science
28, 396–399. doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2016.05.005.
Abou-Shaara, H. F., Al-Ghamdi, A. A. and Mohamed, A. A. (2012) Tolerance of two honey bee races to various temperature and relative humidity gradients. Environmental and Experimental Biology
Adgaba, N., Al-Ghamdi, A., Shenkute, A. G., Ismaiel, S., Al-Kahtani, S., Tadess, Y., Ansari, M. J., Wodajo, W.A. and Abdulaziz, M. Q. A. (2014) Socio-economic analysis of beekeeping and determinants of box hive technology adoption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Alattal, Y. and AlGhamdi, A. (2015) Impact of temperature extremes on survival of indigenous and exotic honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, under desert and semiarid climates. Bulletin of Insectology
68, 219– 222.
Alattal, Y., Al-Ghamdi, A. and Alsharhi, M. (2014) Population structure of the Yemeni honey bee (Apis mellifera jemenitica) entails an urgent conservation strategy in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Entomology
Al-Ghamdi, A. A. (1990) Survey of honeybee diseases, pests and predators in Saudi Arabia. MPhil Thesis, University of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom. 171 pp.
Al-Ghamdi, A. A., Nuru, A., Khanbash, M. S. and Smith, D. R. (2013) Geographical distribution and population variation of Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner. Journal of Apicultural Research
Alippi, A. M., Reynaldi, F. J., López, A. C., De Giusti, M. R. and Aguilar, O. M. (2004) Molecular epidemiology of Paenibacillus larvae and incidence of American foulbrood in Argentinean honeys from Buenos Aires province. Journal of Apicultural Research
43, 135– 143.
Alqarni, A. S. (1995) Morphometrical and biological studies on the native honeybee race, Apis mellifera L., the Carniolan, A. m. carnica Pollmann and their F1 hybrid. MSc Thesis, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Alqarni, A. S., Hannan, M. A., Owayss, A. A. and Engel, M. S. (2011) The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping. ZooKeys
Altschul, S. F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E. W. and Lipman, D. J. (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. Journal of Molecular Biology
Anjum, S. I., Shah, A. H., Kamran Azim, M., Yousuf, M. J., Khan, S. and Khan, S. N. (2015) Prevalence of American foul brood disease of honeybee in north-west Pakistan. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment
Ansari, M. J., Al-Ghamdi, A., Nuru, A., Ahmed, A. M., Ayaad, T. H., Al-Qarni, A., Alattal, Y. and Al-Waili, N. (2016) Survey and molecular detection of Melissococcus plutonius, the causative agent of European Foulbrood in honeybees in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.10.012
Ansari, M. J., Al-Ghamdi, A., Nuru, A., Khan, K. A. and Alattal, Y. (2017) Geographical distribution and molecular detection of Nosema ceranae from indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.01.054
Bakonyi, T., Derakhshifar, I., Grabensteiner, E. and Nowotny, N. (2003) Development and evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Paenibacillus larvae in honey samples: comparison with isolation and biochemical characterization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bamrick, J. F. (1967) Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees: VI. Spore germination in larvae of different ages. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Bassi, S., Formato, G., Milito, M., Trevisiol, K., Salogni, C. and Carra, E. (2015) Phenotypic characterization and ERIC–PCR based genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae isolates recovered from American foulbrood outbreaks in honey bees from Italy. Veterinary Quarterly
Brødsgaard, C. J., Hansen, H. and Ritter, W. (2000) Progress of Paenibacillus larvae infection in individually inoculated honey bee larvae reared singly in vitro, in micro colonies, or in full-size colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research
D'Alessandro, B., Antúnez, K., Piccini, C. and Zunino, P. (2007) DNA extraction and PCR detection of Paenibacillus larvae spores from naturally contaminated honey and bees using spore-decoating and freeze-thawing techniques. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
De Graaf, D. C., Alippi, A. M., Antúnez, K., Aronstein, K. A., Budge, G., De Koker, D., De Smet, L., Dingman, D. W., Evans, J. D., Foster, J. L., Fünfhaus, A., Garcia-Gonzalez, E., Gregorc, A., Human, H., Murray, K. D., Nguyen, B. K., Poppinga, L., Spivark, M., vanEngelsdorp, D., Wilkins, S. and Genersch, E. (2013) Standard methods for American foulbrood research. Journal of Apicultural Research
De Graaf, D. C., Alippi, A. M., Brown, M., Evans, J. D., Feldlaufer, M., Gregorc, A., Hornitzky, M., Pernal, S. F., Schuch, D. M. T., Titĕra, D., Tomkies, V. and Ritter, W. (2006) Diagnosis of American foulbrood in honey bees: a synthesis and proposed analytical protocols. Letters in Applied Microbiology
Djukic, M., Brzuszkiewicz, E., Fünfhaus, A., Voss, J., Gollnow, K., Poppinga, L., Liesegang, H., Garcia-Gonzalez, E., Genersch, E. and Daniel, R. (2014) How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae
. PLoS ONE
9, e90914. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090914.
Ellis, J. D. and Munn, P. A. (2005) The worldwide health status of honey bees. Bee World
Free, J. B. (1993) Insect Pollination of Crops
2nd sub edition. Academic Press Inc., London. 768 pp.
Gallai, N., Salles, J.-M., Settele, J. and Vaissière, B. E. (2009) Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics
Genersch, E. (2010) American foulbrood in honey bees and its causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Genersch, E., Ashiralieva, A. and Fries, I. (2005) Strain- and genotype-specific differences in virulence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a bacterial pathogen causing American foulbrood disease in honey bees. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
71, 7551– 7555.
Genersch, E., Forsgren, E., Pentikäinen, J., Ashiralieva, A., Rauch, S., Kilwinski, J. and Fries, I. (2006) Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies differentiation. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Genersch, E., von der Ohe, W., Kaatz, H., Schroeder, A., Otten, C., Büchler, R., Berg, S., Ritter, W., Mühlen, W., Gisder, S., Meixner, M., Liebig, G. and Rosenkranz, P. (2010) The German bee monitoring project: a long term study to understand periodically high winter losses of honey bee colonies. Apidologie
41, 332–352. doi:10.1051/apido/2010014.
Gordon, R. E., Haynes, W. C. and Pang, C. H. N. (1973) The Genus Bacillus. Agriculture Handbook No. 427. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.
Govan, V. A., Allsopp, M. H. and Davison, S. (1999) A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Paenibacillus larvae
. Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hamdi, C., Essanaa, J., Sansonno, L., Crotti, E., Abdi, K., Barbouche, N., Balloi, A., Gonella, E., Alma, A., Daffonchio, D., Boudabous, A. and Cherif, A. (2013) Genetic and biochemical diversity of Paenibacillus larvae isolated from Tunisian infected honey bee broods. BioMed Research International
2013, Article ID 479893, 9 pp.
Haynes, W. C. (1972) Catalase test; an aid in the identification of Bacillus larvae
. American Bee Journal
Hitchcock, J. D., Stoner, A., Wilson, W. T. and Menapace, D. M. (1979) Pathogenicity of Bacillus pulvifaciens to honey bee larvae of various ages (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
Hornitzky, M. A. Z. and Clark, S. (1991) Culture of Bacillus larvae from bulk honey samples for the detection of American foulbrood. Journal of Apicultural Research
Jukes, T. H. and Cantor, C. R. (1969) Evolution of protein molecules, pp. 21–132. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism (edited by Munro, H. N). Academic Press, New York.
Kostecki, R. (1969) Studies on improvement of control of American foulbrood of the honey bee. Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe
13, 97–135 (In Polish).
Lauro, F. M., Favaretto, M., Covolo, L., Rassu, M. and Bertoloni, G. (2003) Rapid detection of Paenibacillus larvae from honey and hive samples with a novel nested PCR protocol. International Journal of Food Microbiology
Lindström, A., Korpela, S. and Fries, I. (2008) The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
99, 82– 86.
Masry, S. H. D., Kabeil, S. S. and Hafez, E. E. (2014) New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment
MoEP [Ministry of Economics and Planning] (2012) Import data on honey bees from different sources. Central Department of Statistics and Information, Ministry of Economics and Planning (MoEP), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Naug, D. (2009) Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses. Biological Conservation
Neuendorf, S., Hedtke, K., Tangen, G. and Genersch, E. (2004) Biochemical characterization of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a honey bee bacterial pathogen. Microbiology
Nizar, H., Alaa, A., Noureddine, A., Fares, K. and Quddoumi, S. (2015) Diagnosis of Paenibacillus larvae from honey bees in Jordan according to microbiological and chemical techniques. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences
9, 318–329. doi: 10.3923/ajas.2015.318.329.
OIE [Organization mondiale de la santé animale] (2008) American foulbrood, pp. 395–404. In Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Mammals, Birds and Bees), Vol. 1 (6th edn). OIE, Paris, France.
Plagemann, O. (1985) Eine einfache Kulturmethode zur bakteriologischen Identifizierung von Bacillus larvae mit Columbia-Blut-Schrägagar. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr
Potts, S. G., Biesmeijer, J. C., Kremen, C., Neumann, P., Schweiger, O. and Kunin, W. E. (2010) Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Saitou, N. and Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution
Shimanuki, H. and Knox, D. A. (1988) Improved method for the detection of Bacillus larvae spores in honey. American Bee Journal
Shimanuki, H. and Knox, D. A. (2000) Diagnosis of Honey Bee Diseases. US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. Agriculture Handbook Number UAH-690. 61 pp.
Sturtevant, A. P. (1932) Relation of commercial honey to the spread of American foulbrood. Journal of Agricultural Research
Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution
Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. and Gibson, T. J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research
22, 4673– 4680.
vanEngesldorp, D., Evans, J. D., Saegerman, C., Mullin, C., Haubruge, E., Nguyen, B. K., Frazier, M., Frazier, J., Cox-Foster, D., Chen, Y., Underwood, R., Tarpy, D. R. and Pettis, J. S. (2009) Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study. PLoS ONE
4, e6481. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006481.
Watanabe, M. E. (2008) Colony collapse disorder: many suspects, no smoking gun. BioScience
Wilson, W. T. (1971) Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees. XI: Fate of Bacillus larvae spores ingested by adults. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Woodrow, A. W. (1942) Susceptibility of honeybee larvae to individual inoculations with spores of Bacillus larvae
. Journal of Economic Entomology
35, 892– 895.
Woodrow, A. W. and Holst, E. C. (1942) The mechanism of colony resistance to American foulbrood. Journal of Economic Entomology
Yue, D., Nordhoff, M., Wieler, L. H. and Genersch, E. (2008) Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the interactions between honeybee larvae and Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Environmental Microbiology