Skip to main content

Evaluation of four insecticides to protect Nauclea diderrichii (Rubiaceae) seedlings against Orygmophora mediofoveata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) shoot borer damage

  • P.P. Bosu (a1), E. Acquah (a2) and R.O. Boamah (a3)

Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild and Th. Dür.) (common name Kusia and trade name, Opepe) is an evergreen tree found throughout the tropical rainforests of West Africa. It is heavily exploited for its timber and listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The shoot borer Orygmophora mediofoveata Hamps, which attacks the nursery stage, has hampered attempts to establish N. diderrichii plantations in Ghana. This study examined the potential of four insecticides to protect N. diderrichii seedlings from O. mediofoveata attack and damage. Four insecticides–Pyrinex (chlorpyrifos), Dursban (chlorpyrifos), Cerox (dimethoate) and Golan (acetamiprid)–were applied to four-month-old N. diderrichii seedlings growing in full sunlight and under shade (80% of normal light), to evaluate their effects on incidence of attack, survival, severity of damage and growth. Insecticide treatment and light conditions had variable effects on the damage and growth of the seedlings after six months of evaluation. Seedling survival was not significantly influenced by the insecticide treatment. Percent survival of insecticide-treated seedlings did not differ significantly from that of control seedlings in full sun; however, under shade survival of treated seedlings was significantly higher than control seedlings. Nonetheless, control seedlings in full sun had higher survival (92.5%) than those under shade (62.5%). Insecticide-treated seedlings in full sun had lower incidence of shoot borer attack than those under shade. In full sun, dieback incidence following shoot borer attack was significantly lower for insecticide-treated than control seedlings. Growth in height and girth of seedlings was influenced positively by both insecticide and light, with girth especially being significantly lower under shade conditions. Currently, N. diderrichii seedlings are typically raised under shade; however, this study shows that raising seedlings in full sun with insecticide application could result in faster and better growth.

Corresponding author
Hide All
Addo-Danso, S. D., Bosu, P. P., Nkrumah, E. E., Pelz, D. R., Coke, S. A. and Adu-Bredu, S. (2012) Survival and growth of Nauclea diderrichii and Pericopsis elata in monoculture and mixed-species plots in Ghana. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 24, 3745.
Boamah, R. O. (2010) Evaluation of four insecticides for the prevention of opepe shoot borer damage to Nauclea diderrichii seedlings. BSc Thesis, Department of Forest Resources Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 42 pp.
Boateng, K., Swaine, M. D. and Thompson, J. (1999) Effect of light on the germination of forest trees in Ghana. Journal of Ecology, 87 (5), 772783.
Bosu, P. P., Adu-Bredu, S. A., Nuto, Y. and Kokou, K. (2013) Survival, growth and Orygmophora mediofoveata shoot borer attack of Nauclea diderrichii progenies established in three ecological zones in Ghana. Open Journal of Forestry 3, 152158. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34023.
Bosu, P. P., Adu-Bredu, S. and Nkrumah, E. E. (2004) Observations of insect pest activities within selected nurseries in Ashanti, Ghana, pp. 154–162. In Pest Management in Tropical Plantations (edited by Cobbinah, J. R, Ofori, D. A. and Bosu, P. P.). University Printing Press (UPP), KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.
Bosu, P. P., Apetorgbor, M. M., Nkrumah, E. E. and Bandoh, K.P. (2013) The impact of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. on community characteristics in the forest and forest-savannah transition ecosystems of Ghana. African Journal of Ecology 51, 528535.
Bosu, P. P., Miller, F. and Wagner, M. R. (2007) Susceptibility of 32 elm species and hybrids (Ulmus spp.) to the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) under field conditions in Arizona. Journal of Economic Entomology 100, 18081814.
Claussi, A., Marmillod, D. and Blaser, J. (1992) Silvicultural description of the forest plantations of Jenero Herrera. Discription silvicultural de las plantaciones forestales de Jenero Herrera, 334 pp.
Cobbinah, J. R. and Wagner, M. R. (1995) Phenotypic variation in Milicia excelesa to attack by Phytolyma lata (Psyllidae). Forest Ecology and Management 75, 147153.
Connor, E. F. (2006) Effects of the light environment on oviposition preference and survival of a leaf-mining moth, Cameraria hamadryadella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), on Quercus alba L. Ecological Entomology 31, 179184.
Curl, C. L. and Fenske, R. A. and Elgethun, K. (2003) Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environmental Health Perspectives 111, 377382.
Dupuy, B. (1995) Mixed plantations in Cote d′Iivoire rain forests. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 245, 3343.
Dursban® specialty insecticide, 19/11/2009. 11:52 am. (
Eidt, D. C. (1965a) The opepe shoot borer Orygmophora mediofoveata Hmps. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a pest of Nauclea diderrichii in West Africa. The Commonwealth Forestry Review 44, 123125.
Eidt, D. C. (1965b) Description of the larva of Orygmophora mediofoveata Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctidae). The Canadian Entomologist 97, 612617.
Fern, K. (2014) Useful Tropical Plants Database. Accessed 4th June 2016.
Fonweban, J. N., Dondjang, J. P. and Chapajong, T. N. (1994) Growth and quality response of Bilinga (Nauclea diderrichii Merril.) to spacing. New Forests 8, 387395.
Forestry Commission (2013) Draft Ghana National Forest Plantation Development Strategy, 2015–2040. Forestry Commission, Ghana. Available at:
Hall, J. B. and Swaine, M. D. (1981) Distribution and Ecology of Vascular Plants in a Tropical Rain Forest: Forest Vegetation in Ghana. Springer, the Netherlands. 383 pp.
Hawthorne, W. D. (1995a) Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 29. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 345 pp.
Hawthorne, W. D. (1995b) Forest reserves of Ghana: graphical information exhibitor (Manual for the program Forest Reserves of Ghana). IUCN, Forest Conservation Programme; Ghana Forestry Department; Overseas Development Administration, United Kingdom.
Irvine, F. R. (1961) Woody Plants of Ghana with Special Reference to their Uses. Oxford University Press, London, U.K. 868 pp.
IUCN (2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <>. Downloaded on 22 February 2017.
Johansen, N. S., Vänninen, I., Pinto, D. M., Nissinen, A. I. and Shipp, L. (2011) In the light of new greenhouse technologies: Direct effects of artificial lighting on arthropods and integrated pest management in greenhouse crops. Annual Applied Biology 159, 127.
Kyereh, B., Swaine, M. D. and Thompson, J. (1999) Effect of light on the germination of forest trees in Ghana. Journal of Ecology 87, 772783. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00386.x.
Neil, P. E. (1983) Result of forest trees species trials in Vanuatu from 1971–1983 and recommendations for further work. Forest Research Report, Part Vila Vanuatu. 1/83.
Oteng-Amoako, A. A. (2006) 100 Tropical African Timber Trees from Ghana: Tree Description and Wood Identification with Notes on Distribution, Ecology, Silviculture, Ethonobotany and Wood Uses. Forestry Research Institute, Accra, Ghana. 304 pp.
Parry, M. S. (1956) Tree Planting Practices in Tropical Africa. FAO. Forestry Development Paper No. 8, 306 pp.
Pedroso, L. M. (1973) Data on present performance of exotic species in the region of Central Amazonas. Brasil Florestal 4 (16), 6468.
Pendje, G. (1993) Growth and yield of two forest trees planted at Mayombe, Democratic Republic of Congo: Limba (Terminalia superba) and belinga (Nauclea diderrichii) [In French]. Geo-Eco-Trop 17, 101120.
Salim, A. S., Simons, A. J., Waruhiu, A., Orwa, C. and Anyango, C. (1998) Agroforestree Database: A Tree Reference and Selection Guide. Version 1.0. CD-ROM. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya.
Sall, J., Lehman, A. and Creighton, L. (2001) JMP Start Statistics : A Guide to Statistics and Data Analysis Using JMP and JMP IN Software. SAS Institute Inc., Pacific Grove, California.
Shipp, L., Johansen, N., Vänninen, I. and Jacobson, R.. (2011) Greenhouse climate: An important consideration when developing pest management programs for greenhouse crop. Acta Horticulturae. 893, 133144.
Taylor, C. J. (1960) Synecology and Silviculture in Ghana. Nelson and Sons Ltd, London, UK. 418 pp.
Wagner, M. R., Cobbinah, J. R. and Bosu, P. P. (2008) Forest Entomology in West Tropical Africa: Forest Insects of Ghana. 2nd edn. Springer, Netherlands. 244 pp.
Zilahi-Balogh, G. M. G., Humble, L. M., Kok, L. T. and Salom, S. M. (2006) Morphology of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derondontidae), a predator of the hemlock wooly adelgid. Canadian Entomologist 138, 595601.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science
  • ISSN: 1742-7584
  • EISSN: 1742-7592
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-tropical-insect-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 23 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 206 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 16th October 2017 - 23rd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.