Published online by Cambridge University Press: 22 May 2009
1. Waltz, Kenneth, Theory of International Politics (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1979)Google Scholar.
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14. The quotation is from p. 37 of Waltz, Kenneth, “Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory,” Journal of International Affairs 44 (Spring/Summer 1990), pp. 21–37Google Scholar.
16. The distinction between preferences over outcomes and over actions is useful, but it should not be pushed too hard. An outcome in one game may be seen as a policy choice in a larger game.
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36. Clearly this approach does nothing to address the important concerns raised in the sociological approach to the agent–structure problem.
37. For suggestive discussions of the interaction between states and structure in different substantive contexts, see Downing, Brian, The Military Revolution and Political Change (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993)Google Scholar; Katzenstein, Between Power and Plenty; and Tilly, Charles, Capital and Coercion (New York: Blackwell, 1990)Google Scholar.
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44. Buzan, Jones, and Little make a similar point in Buzan, Barry, Jones, Charles, and Little, Richard, The Logic of Anarchy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 54–56Google Scholar.
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74. External balancing through alliances is impossible when there are only two states. Rather, the states engage in internal balancing. For a discussion of internal and external balancing, see Waltz, , Theory of International Politics, p. 168Google Scholar.
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89. See Grieco, “Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation,” as well as his “Realist Theory and the Problem of International Cooperation,” and Cooperation Among Nations. Although Grieco's model may be seen as a reduced form, it is not clear that he sees it as such. His assertion that a state's utility function must incorporate a term reflecting its concern for absolute gains and one reflecting its concern for relative gains may be true of a particular model, but it does not hold for all models. His apparent claim that it is true for all models suggests that he does not interpret his model as a reduced form.
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