Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Democracy and peace: putting the cart before the horse?

  • William R. Thompson
Extract

To explain the strong finding that democracies rarely fight other democracies, analysts typically focus on some attribute of regime type. This linkage may be spurious, at least in part. The emergence and persistence of the first wave of liberal republics and democracies were greatly facilitated by the prior resolution of regional primacy questions. Because early democracies did not engage fully in competitions for regional primacy and territorial expansion, they were less likely to attack other states, democracies or otherwise, in their home regions. Nonexpansionist foreign policies also discouraged the domestic concentration of economic and political power, which in turn facilitated democratization processes. Four historical cases illustrate how regional primacy issues preceded the development of democracy and either undermined or facilitated democratization processes in major powers that have been especially important to the annals of war participation. Further research on whether peace antecedes democracy or the other way around appears warranted.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson, Perry. 1974. Lineages of the absolutist state. London: Verso.
Arneson, Ben A. 1949. The democratic monarchs of Scandinavia. Toronto: D. Van Nostrand.
Bailey, Thomas A. 1958. A diplomatic history of the American people. 7th ed.New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Barnhart, Michael A. 1987. Japan prepares for total war: The search for economic security, 1919–1941. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Barton, H. Arnold. 1986. Scandinavia in the revolutionary era, 1760–1815. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Berger, Gordon M. 1977. Parties out of power in Japan, 1931–1941. Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Berger, Gordon M.. 1988. Politics and mobilization in Japan, 1931–1945. In The Cambridge history of Japan: The twentieth century. vol. 6. Edited by Duus, Peter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Best, Geoffrey. 1982. War and society in revolutionary Europe, 1770–1870. Bungay, U.K.: Fontana.
Black, Jeremy. 1994. British foreign policy in an age of revolutions, 1783–1793. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blanning, T. C. W. 1986. The origins of the French revolutionary wars. New York: Longman.
Bosher, J. F. 1988. The French revolution. New York: W. W. Norton.
Bourne, Kenneth. 1967. Britain and the balance of power in North America, 1815–1908. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brauer, K. J. 1984. 1821–1860: Economies of the diplomacy of American expansionism. In Economics and world power: An assessment of American diplomacy since 1789, edited by Becker, William H. and Wells, Samuel F. Jr. New York: Columbia University Press.
Burt, A. L. 1961. The United States, Great Britain, and British North America. New York: Russell and Russell.
Campbell, Charles C. 1974. From revolution to reapprochement: The United States and Great Britain, 1783–1900. New York: John Wiley.
Chamberlain, Muriel E. 1988. Pax Britannica? British foreign policy, 1789–1914. New York: Longman.
Choucri, Nazli, with North, Robert. 1972. In search of peace systems: Scandinavia and the Netherlands, 1870–1970. In Peace, war, and numbers, edited by Russett, Bruce. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.
Choucri, Nazli, North, Robert, and Yamakage, Susumu. 1992. The challenge of Japan before World War II and after. London: Routledge.
Christie, Ian R. 1982. War and revolutions: Britain, 1760–1815. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Crowley, James B. 1966. Japan's quest for autonomy: National security and foreign policy, 1930–1938. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Deutsch, Karl W., Burrell, Sidney A., Kann, Robert A., Lee, Maurice Jr, Lichteman, Martin, Lindgren, Raymond E., Loewenheim, Francis L., and Van Wagenen, Richard W.. 1957. Political community and the North Atlantic area. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Dovring, Folke. 1978. Scandinavia. In Crises of political development in Europe and the United States, edited by Grew, Raymond. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Downing, Brian M. 1992. The military revolution and political change: Origins of democracy and autocracy in early modern Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Doyle, Michael W. 1986. Liberalism and world politics. American Political Science Review 80:1151–69.
Doyle, William. 1989. The Oxford history of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dupuy, R. Ernest, and Dupuy, Trevor N.. 1977. The encyclopedia of military history. Rev. ed.New York: Harper and Row.
Duus, Peter. 1968. Party rivalry and political change in Taisho Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Duus, Peter. 1976. The rise of modern Japan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Field, James A. 1984. 1789–1820: All oeconomists, all diplomats. In Economics and world power: An assessment of American diplomacy since 1789, edited by Becker, William H. and Wells, Samuel F. JrNew York: Columbia University Press.
Finer, Samuel E. 1975. State and nation building in Europe: The role of the military. In The formation of national states in Western Europe, edited by Tilly, Charles. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Fitzmaurice, John. 1992. The Baltic: A regional future? New York: St. Martin's Press.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1991. Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gurr, Ted R. 1988. War, revolution and the growth of the coercive state. Comparative Political Studies 21:4565.
Hata, Ikuhiko. 1988. Continental expansion, 1905–1941. In Cambridge history of Japan: The twentieth century. Vol. 6. Edited by Duus, Peter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hintze, Otto. 1975. The historical essays of Otto Hintze. edited by Gilbert, Felix. New York: Oxford University Press.
Horsman, Reginald. 1962. The causes of the War of 1812. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 264.
Hovde, Brynijolf J. 1943. The Scandinavian countries, 1720–1865: The rise of the middle classes. 2 vols. Boston: Chapman and Grimes.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Iriye, Akira. 1970. The failure of economic expansion: 1918–1931. In Essays on Taisho democracy, edited by Silberman, Bernard and Harootunian, Harry D.. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jones, Howard. 1992. Union in peril: The crisis over British intervention in the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Jones, J. R. 1980. Britain and the world, 1649–1815. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press.
Kato, Shuichi. 1970. Taisho democracy as the pre-stage for Japanese militarism. In On Taisho democracy, edited by Silberman, Bernard S. and Harootunian, Harry D.. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Levy, Jack S. 1988. Domestic politics and war. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18:653–73.
Lisk, Jill. 1967. The struggle for supremacy in the Baltic, 1600–1725. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
Mann, Michael. 1993. The sources of social power. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mitani, Taichiro. 1988. The establishment of party cabinets, 1898–1932. In The Cambridge history of Japan: The twentieth century. Vol. 6. Edited by Duus, Peter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Modelski, George. 1990. Explaining democratization. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September, San Francisco.
Morgan, T. Clifton, and Howard, Sally. 1991. Domestic structure, decisional constraints and war behavior: So why Kant democracies fight? Journal of Conflict Resolution 35:187211.
Moore, Barrington. 1966. The social origins of dictatorship and democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.
Peattie, Mark R. The Japanese colonial empire, 1895–1945. In The Cambridge history of Japan: The twentieth century. Vol. 6. Edited by Duus, Peter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Porter, Bruce D. 1994. War and the rise of the state. New York: Free Press.
Powell, G. Bingham. 1973. Incremental democratization: The British reform act of 1832. In Crisis, choice, and change: Historical studies of political development, edited by Almond, Gabriel A., Flanagan, Scott C., and Mundt, Robert J.. Boston: Little, Brown.
Price, Roger. 1993. A concise history of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rasler, Karen, and Thompson, William R.. 1989. War and state making: The shaping of the global powers. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Rasler, Karen, and Thompson, William R.. 1994. The great powers and global struggle, 1490–1992. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Reischauer, Edwin O. 1964. Japan: Past and present. 3d rev. ed.New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Reuschmeyer, Dietrich, Stephens, Evelyne H., and Stephens, John D.. 1992. Capitalist development and democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Russett, Bruce. 1990. Controlling the sword: The democratic governance of national security. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Russett, Bruce. 1993. Grasping the democratic peace: Principles for a post–cold war world. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Rustow, Dankwart. 1970. Transitions to democracy: Toward a dynamic model. Comparative Politics 2:337–63.
Samuels, Richard J. 1994. Rich nation, strong army: National security and technological transformation of Japan. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Scalapino, Robert A. 1962. Democracy and the party movement in prewar Japan: The failure of the first attempt. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schama, Simon. 1989. Citizens: A chronicle of the French revolution. New York: Knopf.
Schweller, Randall. 1992. Domestic structure and preventative war: Are democracies more pacific? World Politics 44:235–69.
Silberman, Bernard S. 1970. Taisho Japan and the crisis of secularism. In Japan in crisis: Essays on Taisho democracy, edited by Silberman, Bernard S. and Harootunian, Harry D.. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 437–53.
Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and social revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Skocpol, Theda, and Kestnbaum, Meyer. 1990. Mars unshackled: The French revolution in world-historical perspective. In The French revolution and the birth of modernity, edited by Feher, Ference. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Small, Melvin, 1962. Was war necessary? National security and U.S. entry into war. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.
Small, Melvin. 1980. Was war necessary? National security and U.S. entry into war. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.
Stone, Bailey. 1994. The genesis of the French revolution: A global historical interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thompson, William R., and Zuk, Gary. 1986. World power and the strategic trap of territorial commitments. International Studies Quarterly 30:249–67.
Tilly, Charles, E., 1975. Reflections on the history of European state-making. In The formation of national states in Western Europe, edited by Tilly, Charles. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 383.
Tilly, Charles, E., . 1990. Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990–1990. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
Tilly, Charles, E., . 1993. European revolutions, 1492–1992. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.
Willmott, H. P. 1982. Empires in the balance: Japanese and allied Pacific strategies to April 1942. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press.
Wright, J. Leitch Jr 1975. Britain and the American frontier, 1783–1815. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Wright, Quincy. 1965. A study of war. 1942. Reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed