Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 143
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Barnes, Jamal 2016. Black sites, ‘extraordinary renditions’ and the legitimacy of the torture taboo. International Politics, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 198.

    Germain, Randall 2016. Robert W. Cox and the Idea of History: Political Economy as Philosophy. Globalizations, Vol. 13, Issue. 5, p. 532.

    Luckhurst, Jonathan 2016. G20 Since the Global Crisis.

    Muzaka, Valbona 2016. A dialogic approach to understanding regime conflicts: the case of the development agenda. Third World Quarterly, p. 1.

    Ostermann, Falk 2016. The discursive construction of intervention: selves, democratic legacies, and Responsibility to Protect in French discourse on Libya. European Security, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 72.

    Pursiainen, Christer Henrik and Matveeva, Angelica 2016. Initiating Trust in High Politics: The Gorbachev-Reagan Summit in Geneva 1985. International Negotiation, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 104.

    Selden, Zachary and Strome, Stuart 2016. Competing Identities and Security Interests in the Indo–US Relationship. Foreign Policy Analysis, p. orw029.

    Zürn, Michael 2016. Opening up Europe: next steps in politicisation research. West European Politics, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 164.

    Barkin, J Samuel 2015. When institutions can hurt you: Transparency, domestic politics, and international cooperation. International Politics, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 349.

    de Felice, Damiano 2015. Diverging Visions on Political Conditionality: The Role of Domestic Politics and International Socialization in French and British Aid. World Development, Vol. 75, p. 26.

    Gadinger, Frank and Peters, Dirk 2015. Theorizing Foreign Policy in a Globalized World.

    Hofferberth, Matthias and Weber, Christian 2015. Lost in translation: a critique of constructivist norm research. Journal of International Relations and Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 75.

    Medina de Souza, Igor Abdalla 2015. An offer developing countries could not refuse: how powerful states created the World Trade Organisation. Journal of International Relations and Development, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 155.

    SPANDLER, KILIAN 2015. The political international society: Change in primary and secondary institutions. Review of International Studies, Vol. 41, Issue. 03, p. 601.

    Trondal, Jarle 2015. The Palgrave Handbook of the European Administrative System.

    Wilkens, Jan 2015. Contentious Politics in the Middle East.

    Wolfe, Robert 2015. An Anatomy of Accountability at the WTO. Global Policy, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 13.

    Barbato, Mariano 2014. What kind of person is the state? The pilgrim as a processual metaphor beyond the Leviathan. Journal of International Relations and Development,

    Emerson, R. Guy 2014. An Art of the Region: Towards a Politics of Regionness. New Political Economy, Vol. 19, Issue. 4, p. 559.

    MacKay, Joseph Levin, Jamie de Carvalho, Gustavo Cavoukian, Kristin and Cuthbert, Ross 2014. Before and after borders: The nomadic challenge to sovereign territoriality. International Politics, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 101.


International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state

  • Friedrich Kratochwil (a1) and John Gerard Ruggie (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

International organization as a field of study is where the action is. The analytical shifts leading up to the current preoccupation with international regimes have been both progressive and cumulative. And the field is pursuing its object of study in innovative ways that are bringing it closer to the theoretical core of more general international relations work. As we point out, however, the study of regimes as practiced today suffers from the fact that its epistemological approaches contradict its basic ontological posture. Accordingly, more interpretive strains, commensurate with the intersubjective basis of international regimes, should be included in the prevailing epistemological approaches. In addition, as a result of its enthusiasm for the concept of regimes, the field has tended to neglect the study of formal international organizations. Interpretive epistemologies can also help to link up the study of regimes with the study of formal international organizations by drawing attention to the roles these organizations play in creating transparency in the behavior and expectations of actors, serving as focal points for the international legitimation struggle, and providing a venue for the conduct of global epistemic politics.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      International organization: a state of the art on an art of the state
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Imre Lakatos , ’Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes,” in Lakatos and Alan Musgrave , eds., Criticisms and the Growth of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970)

Klaus Knorr , “The Bretton Woods Institutions in Transition,”International Organization [hereafter cited as 10] 2 (021948)

Cheryl Payer , “The Perpetuation of Dependence: The IMF and the Third World,” Monthly Review 23 (091971)

Payer, “The World Bank and the Small Farmers,” Journal of Peace Research 16, no. 121 (1979)

Roger D. Hansen Regional Integration: Reflection on a Decade of Theoretical Efforts,” World Politics 21 (011969)

Thomas Weiss and Robert Jordan , “Bureaucratic Politics and the World Food Conference,” World Politics 28 (041976)

John Gerard Ruggie , “On the Problem of ‘The Global Problematique’: What Roles for International Organizations?Alternatives 5 (011980)

Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye , “Transgovernmental Relations and International Organizations,” World Politics 27 (101974)

John Gerard Ruggie , “Collective Goods and Future International Collaboration,” American Political Science Review 66 (091972)

John Harsanyi , “Rational Choice Models of Political Behavior vs. Functionalist and Conformist Theories,” World Politics 21 (071969)

Robert Jervis , “Cooperation under the Security DilemmaWorld Politics 30 (011978)

Robert Axelrod , “The Emergence of Cooperation among Egoists,” American Political Science Review 75 (061981)

Charles Lipson , “International Cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs,” World Politics 37 (101984)

Immanuel Wallerstein , “The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 16 (091974)

Hayward R. Alker , James Bennett , and Dwain Mefford , “Generalized Precedent Logics for Resolving Insecurity Dilemmas,” International Interactions 7, no. 2 (1980)

Theodore F. Abel , “The Operation Called Verstehen,” American Journal of Sociology 54 (111948)

Hayward R. Alker , “Dialectical Foundations of Global Disparities,” International Studies Quarterly 25 (031981)

Guido Calabresi and Douglas Melamed , “Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral,” Harvard Law Review 85 (041972)

Susan Rose-Ackerman , “Inalienability and the Theory of Property Rights,” Columbia Law Review 85 (061985)

Ernst B. Haas and John Gerard Ruggie , “What Message in the Medium of Information Systems?International Studies Quarterly 26 (061982)

Haas, “Why Collaborate? Issue-Linkage and International Regimes,” World Politics 32 (041980)

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *