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    Lin, Yu-fang Liu, Zhi-dan Ma, Wen and Shen, Wei-dong 2016. Hazards of insomnia and the effects of acupuncture treatment on insomnia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 174.

    Sadler, Paul McLaren, Suzanne Klein, Britt Jenkins, Megan and Harvey, Jack 2015. Cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults experiencing insomnia and depression in a community mental health setting: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S. and Vitiello, Michael V. 2014. Sleep in Older Adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 591.


A psychological pathway from insomnia to depression among older adults

  • Paul Sadler (a1), Suzanne McLaren (a1) and Megan Jenkins (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 13 May 2013

Background: Higher levels of insomnia predict greater depression severity among older adults; however, the psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. This study tested a path model that explored whether dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and hopelessness mediated the relationship from insomnia to depression. It was hypothesized that insomnia would predict depression, both directly and indirectly, via dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and hopelessness.

Methods: A community sample of 218 independent-living Australian older adults aged from 65 to 96 years completed a self-report questionnaire package. From the initial 218 participants, 171 completed a measure of depression three months later.

Results: Path analysis demonstrated that maladaptive sleep beliefs and hopelessness partly explained how insomnia influenced depression, irrespective of the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and/or restless legs syndrome.

Conclusions: An older adult's beliefs about sleep and sense of hopelessness were important psychological factors that helped explain how insomnia related to depression.

Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Paul Sadler, School of Health Sciences, University of Ballarat, PO Box 663, Ballarat 3353, Victoria, Australia. Phone: +61 (03) 5327 9000; Fax: +61 (03) 5327 9704. Email:
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International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
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