Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 242
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ansari, Zarrin 2016. Homocysteine and mild cognitive impairment: Are these the tools for early intervention in the dementia spectrum?. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 155.

    Bolívar, Juan Carlos Cejudo and Saladie, Domènec Gil 2016. Redefining Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as an Early Form of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Assessment of Memory Systems. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 705.

    Degen, Christina Toro, Pablo Schönknecht, Peter Sattler, Christine and Schröder, Johannes 2016. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 240, p. 42.

    Grande, Giulia Cucumo, Valentina Cova, Ilaria Ghiretti, Roberta Maggiore, Laura Lacorte, Eleonora Galimberti, Daniela Scarpini, Elio Clerici, Francesca Pomati, Simone Vanacore, Nicola Mariani, Claudio and Gallucci, Maurizio 2016. Reversible Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Role of Comorbidities at Baseline Evaluation. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 57.

    Hoerr, Robert and Zaudig, Michael 2016. A retrospective classification of diagnoses in terms of DSM-5 for patients included in randomized controlled trials of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761®. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 266, Issue. 3, p. 249.

    Jones, Kristin C. Han, Jin Y. and Shah, Asim A. 2016. Cognitive Continuum: Areas of Controversy with Cognitive Enhancers. Psychiatric Annals, Vol. 46, Issue. 2, p. 110.

    Karuturi, Meghan Wong, Melisa L. Hsu, Tina Kimmick, Gretchen G. Lichtman, Stuart M. Holmes, Holly M. Inouye, Sharon K. Dale, William Loh, Kah P. Whitehead, Mary I. Magnuson, Allison Hurria, Arti Janelsins, Michelle C. and Mohile, Supriya 2016. Understanding cognition in older patients with cancer. Journal of Geriatric Oncology, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 258.

    Klekociuk, Shannon Z Saunders, Nichole L and Summers, Mathew J 2016. Diagnosing Mild Cognitive Impairment as a Precursor to Dementia: Fact or Fallacy?. Australian Psychologist,

    Kowoll, Magdalena Eva Degen, Christina Gorenc, Lina Küntzelmann, Anika Fellhauer, Iven Giesel, Frederik Haberkorn, Uwe and Schröder, Johannes 2016. Bilingualism as a Contributor to Cognitive Reserve? Evidence from Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol. 7,

    Lopes, Marcos Antonio Xavier, André Junqueira and D’Orsi, Eleonora 2016. Cognitive and functional impairment in an older community population from Brazil: The intriguing association with frequent pain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Vol. 66, p. 134.

    Ojagbemi, Akin Bello, Toyin and Gureje, Oye 2016. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 64, Issue. 3, p. 590.

    Shen, Andrew Nathanael Cummings, Craig Pope, Derek Hoffman, Daniel and Newland, M.Christopher 2016. A bout analysis reveals age-related methylmercury neurotoxicity and nimodipine neuroprotection. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 311, p. 147.

    Stein, Liana R. O’Dell, Kazuko A. Funatsu, Michiyo Zorumski, Charles F. and Izumi, Yukitoshi 2016. Short-term environmental enrichment enhances synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from aged rats. Neuroscience, Vol. 329, p. 294.

    Tentori, Monica Mercado, José Cibrian, Franceli L. and Escobedo, Lizbeth 2016. Wireless Computing in Medicine.

    Trebbastoni, Alessandro Pichiorri, Floriana D’Antonio, Fabrizia Campanelli, Alessandra Onesti, Emanuela Ceccanti, Marco de Lena, Carlo and Inghilleri, Maurizio 2016. Altered Cortical Synaptic Plasticity in Response to 5-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a New Electrophysiological Finding in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Converting to Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from a 4-year Prospective Cohort Study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Vol. 7,

    Verdonschot, T. and Kat, M. 2016. Leerboek psychiatrie voor verpleegkundigen.

    Yhnell, Emma Lelos, Mariah J. Dunnett, Stephen B. and Brooks, Simon P. 2016. Cognitive training modifies disease symptoms in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. Experimental Neurology, Vol. 282, p. 19.

    Etgen, Thorleif 2015. Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline.

    Hardman, Roy J. Kennedy, Greg Macpherson, Helen Scholey, Andrew B. and Pipingas, Andrew 2015. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of Mediterranean diet and aerobic exercise on cognition in cognitively healthy older people living independently within aged care facilities: the Lifestyle Intervention in Independent Living Aged Care (LIILAC) study protocol [ACTRN12614001133628]. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Henstridge, Christopher M. Jackson, Rosemary J. Kim, JeeSoo M. Herrmann, Abigail G. Wright, Ann K. Harris, Sarah E. Bastin, Mark E. Starr, John M. Wardlaw, Joanna Gillingwater, Thomas H. Smith, Colin McKenzie, Chris-Anne Cox, Simon R. Deary, Ian J. and Spires-Jones, Tara L. 2015. Post-mortem brain analyses of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: extending lifetime cognitive and brain phenotyping to the level of the synapse. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, Vol. 3, Issue. 1,


Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline


In 1962, based on a study of nursing home residents, Kral suggested a distinction between benign and malignant senescent forgetfulness, the latter evolving to dementia and early death and the former remaining relatively static. Although this concept was never operationally described or validated, it clearly rang true with those working with the nascent specialty of geriatric psychiatry and rapidly entered standard textbooks on the subject. The burgeoning of interest in the elderly and the massive expansion of clinical and research work in the field of dementia in the eighties led to a widely expressed need for the development of criteria to categorize a group of subjects with memory problems falling short of dementia. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) responded with the formation of a working group that published its suggested criteria for what Crook et al. (1986) called “age-associated memory impairment” (AAMI). Although some of the detailed components of these criteria have proved controversial, the term has been increasingly quoted in relevant literature and has given rise to specific studies. It has led to wide discussion, and related entities have been incorporated both in the draft of DSM-IV (as “aging-associated cognitive decline [AACD]” [American Psychiatric Association, 1993], an “additional condition that may be the focus of clinical attention”) and in the research criteria for ICD-10 (World Health Organization, 1993), where it is potentially classifiable under FO6.7 Mild Cognitive Disorder, although this does not specifically give aging as a cause. In arriving at our provisional criteria we have drawn to a great degree on these and other related publications that we are pleased to acknowledge.

Hide All
Aging-Associated Cognitive Decline Working Party: Raymond Levy, MD, PhD, FRCPsych, FRCP, Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, The Maudsley Hospital, London, England (Chairperson); Robert J. Howard, MA, MB, BS, MRCPsych, Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London, England (Rapporteur); Marcus Richards, PhD, Section of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, The Maudsley Hospital, London, England (Rapporteur); Luigi A. Amaducci, MD, First Neurological Department, University of Florence, Italy; Christian Derouesne, MD, Clinique des Maladies du Systéme Nerveux, Hôpital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France; Albert Hofman, MD, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Felicia Huppert, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, England; Peter V. Rabins, MD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Paul Raptopoulos, MD, Medicines Control Agency, London, England; Bedirhan Üstün, MD, Division of Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Peter J. Whitehouse, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *