Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The association between depressive and cognitive symptoms in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

  • Carol Hudon (a1) (a2), Sylvie Belleville (a3) (a4) and Serge Gauthier (a5)
Abstract

Background: Depressive symptoms are frequently observed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, little is known regarding the cognitive characteristics of this important subgroup.

Methods: We examined executive functions (controlled inhibition) and verbal episodic memory in 33 healthy older adults (control group), 18 older adults with amnestic MCI plus subclinical depressive symptoms (a-MCI/D+ group), and 26 older adults with amnestic MCI but no depressive symptoms (a-MCI group).

Results: Compared to the a-MCI and control groups, patients with a-MCI/D+ showed poor controlled inhibition. Moreover, in verbal episodic memory these patients recalled fewer words than control participants on immediate free, delayed free, and delayed total (free plus cued) recall. Performance on immediate recall suggested a self-retrieval deficit, but delayed performance also revealed the existence of an encoding impairment. In the a-MCI group, participants exhibited normal performance on the executive task, but pervasive memory impairment; the memory deficit concerned free and total recall on both immediate and delayed tasks, suggesting the existence of encoding and self-retrieval disturbances.

Conclusions: This study reveals differences between the pattern of cognitive impairment for a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI subgroups particularly at the level of executive capacities. In terms of memory functioning, the differences between the subgroups were more subtle; more studies are needed in order to better characterize the memory impairment of a-MCI/D+ and a-MCI patients.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr. Carol Hudon, Centre de recherche Université Laval Robert-Giffard, 2601, ch. de la Canardière F-4500, Québec, QC, Canada, G1J 2G3. Phone: +1 418 663 5741; Fax: +1 418 663 9540. Email: carol.hudon@psy.ulaval.ca.
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Baudic, S., Tzortzis, C., Barba, G. D. and Traykov, L. (2004). Executive deficits in elderly patients with major unipolar depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17, 195201.
Belleville, S., Rouleau, N. and van der Linden, M. (2006). Use of the Hayling task to measure inhibition of prepotent responses in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. Brain and Cognition, 62, 113119.
Benton, A. L., Hamsher, K. D., Varney, N. R. and Spreen, O. (1983). Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment: Tests. New York: Oxford University Press.
Butters, M. A. et al. (2004). The nature and determinants of neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 587595.
Chen, P. et al. (2000). Cognitive tests that best discriminate between presymptomatic AD and those who remain nondemented. Neurology, 55, 18471853.
Copeland, M. P. et al. (2003). Psychiatric symptomatology and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 17, 18.
Dierckx, E., Engelborghs, S., De Raedt, R., De Deyn, P. P. and Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I. (2007)a. Differentiation between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and depression by means of cued recall. Psychological Medicine, 37, 747755.
Dierckx, E., Engelborghs, S., De Raedt, R., De Deyn, P. P. and Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I. (2007)b. Mild cognitive impairment: what's in a name? Gerontology, 53, 2835.
Feldman, H. et al. (2004). Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology, 62, 11991201.
Gauthier, S. and Touchon, J. (2005). Mild cognitive impairment is not a clinical entity and should not be treated. Archives of Neurology, 62, 11641166.
Gauthier, S. et al. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet, 367, 12621270.
Geda, Y. E. et al. (2006). Depression, apolipoprotein E genotype, and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Neurology, 63, 435440.
Hachinski, V. C. et al. (1975). Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Archives of Neurology, 32, 632637.
Hébert, R., Guilbault, J., Desrosiers, J. and Dubuc, N. (2001). The Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF): a clinical-based instrument for measuring disabilities and handicaps in older people. Geriatrics Today: Journal of the Canadian Geriatrics Society, 4, 141147.
Holthausen, E. A., Wiersma, D., Knegtering, R. H. and Van Den Bosch, R. J. (1999). Psychopathology and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the role of depressive symptoms. Schizophrenia Research, 39, 6571.
Hoyl, M. T. et al. (1999). Development and testing of a five-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 873878.
Ivanoiu, A. et al. (2005). Memory evaluation with a new cued recall test in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, 252, 4755.
Kaplan, E. F., Goodglass, H. and Weintraub, S. (1983). The Boston Naming Test. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
Kindermann, S. S. and Brown, G. G. (1997). Depression and memory in the elderly: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 625642.
Kohler, C., Gur, R. C., Swanson, C. L., Petty, R. and Gur, R. E. (1998). Depression in schizophrenia: I. Association with neuropsychological deficits. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 165172.
Kramer, J. H. et al. (2006). Multiple cognitive deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 306311.
Kuzis, G., Sabe, L., Tiberti, C., Leiguarda, R. and Starkstein, S. E. (1997). Cognitive functions in major depression and Parkinson disease. Archives of Neurology, 54, 982986.
Mattis, S. (1976). Mental status examination for organic mental syndrome in the elderly patient. In Bellack, L. and Karasu, T. (eds.) Geriatric Psychiatry (pp. 71121). New York: Grune & Stratton.
Modrego, P. J. and Ferrandez, J. (2004). Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment increases the risk of developing dementia of Alzheimer type: a prospective cohort study. Archives of Neurology, 61, 12901293.
O'Brien, J. T., Lloyd, A., McKeith, I., Gholkar, A. and Ferrier, N. (2004). A longitudinal study of hippocampal volume, cortisol levels, and cognition in older depressed subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 20812090.
Palmer, K. et al. (2007). Predictors of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 68, 15961602.
Petersen, R. C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medecine, 256, 183194.
Petersen, R. C. et al. (1997). Aging, memory, and mild cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 9 (Suppl. 1), 6569.
Ready, R. E., Ott, B. R., Grace, J. and Cahn-Weiner, D. A. (2003). Apathy and executive dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 222228.
Regard, M. (1981). Cognitive rigidity and flexibility: a neuropsychological study. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation. Victoria: University of Victoria, Canada.
Rey, A. (1960). Test de la Figure complexe de Rey. Paris: Les Éditions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée.
Robert, P. H. et al. (2006). Neuropsychological performance in mild cognitive impairment with and without apathy. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21, 192197.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2001). Depression, antidepressants, and the shrinking hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 1232012322.
Sheline, Y. I. et al. (2006). Cognitive function in late life depression: relationships to depression severity, cerebrovascular risk factors and processing speed. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 5865.
Signoret, J. L. (1991). Batterie d'Efficience Mnésique: BEM 144. Paris: Elsevier.
Steffens, D. C. et al. (2006). Perspectives on depression, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 130138.
van der Linden, M. et al. (2004). L'épreuve de rappel libre/rappel indicé à 16 items (RL/RI-16). In: Van der Linden, M. et al. (eds.), L'évaluation des troubles de la mémoire: présentation de quatre tests de mémoire épisodique (avec leur étalonnage) (pp. 2547). Marseille: Solal.
Villeneuve, S., Belleville, S., Lacombe, J. and Gauthier, S. (2007). The contribution of vascular burden in persons with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13 (Suppl. 2), 135.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed