Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bakken, Marit S. Schjøtt, Jan Engeland, Anders Engesaeter, Lars B. and Ruths, Sabine 2016. Antipsychotic Drugs and Risk of Hip Fracture in People Aged 60 and Older in Norway. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 64, Issue. 6, p. 1203.

    Barry, Heather E. Parsons, Carole Passmore, A. Peter and Hughes, Carmel M. 2016. Exploring the prevalence of and factors associated with pain: a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling people with dementia. Health & Social Care in the Community, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 270.

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit and Davidson, Michael 2014. Considerations in psychotropic treatments in dementia – can polypharmacy be avoided?. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 17, Issue. 07, p. 1107.

    Carrasco-Garrido, P. López de Andrés, A. Hernández Barrera, V. Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel and Jiménez-García, R. 2013. National trends (2003–2009) and factors related to psychotropic medication use in community-dwelling elderly population. International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 25, Issue. 02, p. 328.

    Fröhlich, Samanta E. and Mengue, Sotero S. 2013. The Impact of Psychotropic Drug Costs on the Brazilian Family Budget: An Analysis of the Family Budget Surveys of 2003 and 2009. Value in Health Regional Issues, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 361.


Change in psychotropic drug use among community-dwelling people aged 75 years and older in Finland: repeated cross-sectional population studies

  • Franciska Desplenter (a1) (a2) (a3), Charlotte Caenen (a1) (a3), Jolein Meelberghs (a1) (a3), Sirpa Hartikainen (a1) (a2) (a4), Raimo Sulkava (a5) (a6) and J. Simon Bell (a1) (a2) (a7)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 April 2011

Background: Older people are at high risk of experiencing psychotropic-related adverse drug events. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the use of psychotropic drugs among community-dwelling people aged ≥75 years in 1998 and 2004.

Methods: Comparable random samples of people aged ≥75 years were extracted from the population register in Kuopio, Finland, in 1998 (n = 700) and 2003 (n = 1000). In 1998 and 2004, 523 and 700 community-dwelling people respectively participated in nurse interviews, during which demographic, diagnostic and drug use data were elicited. Logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prevalence of psychotropic drug use in 2004 compared to 1998.

Results: The unadjusted prevalence of total psychotropic (37.3% and 38.4%, OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.83–1.33), anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative (29.6% and 31.3%, OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.85–1.38), and antidepressant (10.7% and 11.9%, OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.78–1.61) use were similar in 1998 and 2004. There was a decrease in the unadjusted prevalence of antipsychotic use (9.2% and 5.7%, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39–0.93). After adjusting for socioeconomic and health status differences, there was an increase in the prevalence of total psychotropic (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01–1.70) and antidepressant (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.06–2.40) use.

Conclusion: The unadjusted prevalence of psychotropic drug use remained stable between 1998 and 2004. However, in adjusted analyses there was a small increase in the prevalence of any psychotropic drug use and antidepressant use specifically.

Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addresed to: J. Simon Bell, PhD, Research Director, Kuopio Research Center of Geriatric Care, PO Box 1627, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70211, Finland. Phone: +358 403553266; Fax: +358 17162424. Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. R. Aparasu , J. R. Mort and H. Brandt (2003). Psychotropic prescription use by community-dwelling elderly in the United States. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 671677.

J. S. Bell , M. Väänänen , H. Ovaskainen , U. Närhi and M. S. Airaksinen (2007). Providing patient care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Finland. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41, 10391046.

J. S. Bell , T. Klaukka , J. Ahonen and S. Hartikainen (2009). National utilization of transdermal fentanyl among community-dwelling older people in Finland. American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 7, 355361.

E. R. Dorsey , A. Rabbani , S. A. Gallagher , R. M. Conti and G. C. Alexander (2010). Impact of FDA black box advisory on antipsychotic medication use. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 96103.

B. Draper and K. Berman (2008). Tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: issues relevant to the elderly. Drugs and Aging, 25, 501519.

M. F. Folstein , S. E. Folstein and P. R. McHugh (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.

C. B. Fox , A. K. Treadway , A. T. Blaszczyk and R. B. Sleeper (2009). Megestrol acetate and mirtazapine for the treatment of unplanned weight loss in the elderly. Pharmacotherapy, 29, 383397.

S. Hartikainen , T. Rahkonen , H. Kautianen and R. Sulkava (2003). Kuopio 75+ study: does advanced age predict more common use of psychotropics among the elderly? International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 163167.

S. A. Hartikainen , P. Mantyselka , K. Louhivuori-Laako , H. Enlund and R. Sulkava (2005). Concomitant use of analgesics and psychotropics in home-dwelling elderly people – Kuopio 75+ study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 60, 306310.

S. Hartikainen , E. Lönnroos and K. Louhivuori (2007). Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 62, 11721181.

S. N. Hilmer , A. J. McLachlan and D. G. Le Couteur (2007). Clinical pharmacology in the geriatric patient. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, 21, 217230.

J. Jyrkkä , H. Enlund , M. J. Korhonen , R. Sulkava and S. Hartikainen (2009). Patterns of drug use and factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in elderly persons: results of the Kuopio 75+ study: a cross-sectional analysis. Drugs and Aging, 26, 494503.

M. P. Lawton and E. M. Brody (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179186.

T. A. Linjakumpu , S. A. Hartikainen , T. J. Klaukka , H. J. Koponen , S-L. Kivela and R. E. Isoaho (2002). Psychotropics among the home dwelling elderly: increasing trends. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 874883.

N. Pokela , J. S. Bell , K. Lihavainen , R. Sulkava and S. Hartikainen (2010). Analgesic use among community-dwelling people aged 75 years and older: a population-based interview study. American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 8, 233244.

M. Rikala , S. Hartikainen , R. Sulkava and M. J. Korhonen (2010a). Validity of the Finnish Prescription Register for measuring psychotropic drug exposures among elderly Finns: a population-based intervention study. Drugs and Aging, 27, 337349.

M. Salonoja , M. Salminen , P. Aarnio , T. Vahlberg and S. L. Kivelä (2010). One-time counselling decreases the use of benzodiazepines and related drugs among community-dwelling older persons. Age and Ageing, 39, 313319.

L. S. Schneider (2006). Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 15251538.

J. Snowdon and R. Fleming (2008). Recognising depression in residential facilities: an Australian challenge. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 295300.

A. Soudry , C. Dufouil , K. Ritchie , J. F. Dartigues , C. Tzourio and A. Alpérovitch (2008). Factors associated with changes in antidepressant use in a community-dwelling elderly cohort: the Three-City Study. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64, 5159.

P. van Vliet , R. C. van der Mast , M. van den Broek , R. G. Westendorp and A. J. de Craen (2009). Use of benzodiazepines, depressive symptoms and cognitive function in old age. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 500508.

H. Verdoux , M. Tournier and B. Bégaud (2010). Antipsychotic prescribing trends: a review of pharmaco-epidemiological studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 121, 410.

N. Watanabe (2010). Safety reporting and adverse-event profile of mirtazapine described in randomized controlled trials in comparison with other classes of antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of adults with depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. CNS Drugs, 24, 3553.

J. A. Yesavage (1982–1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 3749.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *