Many authors over the centuries have attempted to refute popular negative stereotypes about aging. In 2010, Depp, Vahia, and Jeste reviewed theories of success in aging (Depp et al., 2010), and some examples include Erikson's life stage theory in which he posited that successful resolution of earlier conflicts led to integrity in later life instead of despair; disengagement theory referred to the fact that in our culture, aging is associated with social isolation and reduced societal involvement – with this theory, successful adaptation to aging means coping with this normative disengagement in a healthy manner; activity theory referred to continued engagement in later life; continuity theory emphasized the role of adapting oneself to maintain consistency with earlier life roles. The common theme is that longevity is not enough, and a successful aging process means delaying the onset of disability, compressing morbidity, or shortening the proportion of the lifespan in which one is disabled.
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