Skip to main content
×
Home

Pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long-term care: a systematic review

  • Dallas P. Seitz (a1), Sudeep S. Gill (a2), Nathan Herrmann (a3) (a4), Sarah Brisbin (a1), Mark J. Rapoport (a3) (a4), Jenna Rines (a1), Kimberley Wilson (a5), Ken Le Clair (a1) and David K. Conn (a3) (a6)...
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Background: Medications are frequently prescribed for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) associated with dementia, although information on the efficacy and safety of medications for NPS specifically in long-term care (LTC) settings is limited. The objective of this study was to provide a current review of the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for NPS in LTC.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing medications with either placebo or other interventions in LTC. Study quality was described using the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. The efficacy of medications was evaluated using NPS symptom rating scales. Safety was evaluated through rates of trial withdrawals, trial withdrawals due to adverse events, and mortality.

Results: A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. The most common medications evaluated in studies were atypical antipsychotics (N = 15), typical antipsychotics (N = 7), anticonvulsants (N = 4), and cholinesterase inhibitors (N = 3). Statistically significant improvements in NPS were noted in some studies evaluating risperidone, olanzapine, and single studies of aripiprazole, carbamazepine, estrogen, cyproterone, propranolol, and prazosin. Study quality was difficult to rate in many cases due to incomplete reporting of details. Some studies reported higher rates of trial withdrawals, adverse events, and mortality associated with medications.

Conclusions: We conclude that there is limited evidence to support the use of some atypical antipsychotics and other medications for NPS in LTC populations. However, the generally modest efficacy and risks of adverse events highlight the need for the development of safe and effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for this population.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long-term care: a systematic review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long-term care: a systematic review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long-term care: a systematic review
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr. Dallas Seitz, Geriatric Psychiatry Services, Providence Care – Mental Health Services, 752 King Street West, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 4X3. Telephone: 613-548-5567, ext: 5942; Fax: 613-540-6128. Email: seitzd@providencecare.ca
References
Hide All
Alexopoulos G. S., Jeste D. V., Chung H., Carpenter D., Ross R. and Docherty J. P. (2005). The expert consensus guideline series. Treatment of dementia and its behavioral disturbances. Introduction: methods, commentary, and summary. Postgraduate Medicine, Spec No, 6.
Andrade C., Sandarsh S., Chethan K. B. and Nagesh K. S. (2010). Serontonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: a review for clinicians and reconsideration of mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 15651575.
Ballard C. and Howard R. (2006). Neuroleptic drugs in dementia: benefits and harm. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 492500.
Ballard C. and Waite J. (2006). The effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of aggression and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online), (1), CD003476.
Ballard C. G.et al. (2004). A 3-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, neuroleptic discontinuation study in 100 people with dementia: the neuropsychiatric inventory median cutoff is a predictor of clinical outcome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 114119.
Ballard C.et al. (2005). Quetiapine and rivastigmine and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 330, 874.
Ballard C.et al. (2008). A randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in dementia patients continuing or stopping neuroleptics (The DART-AD Trial). PLoS Medicine, 5, 05870599.
Ballard C., Corbett A., Chitramohan R. and Aarsland D. (2009a). Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer's disease: controversies and possible solutions. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22, 532540.
Ballard C.et al. (2009b). Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology, 5, 245255.
Ballard C.et al. (2009c). The dementia antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology, 8, 151157.
Barak Y., Plopski I., Tadger S. and Paleacu D. (2011). Escitalopram versus risperidone for the treatment of behavioral and psychotic symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized double-blind study. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 15151519.
Barnes R., Veith R. and Okimoto J. (1982). Efficacy of antipsychotic medications in behaviorally disturbed dementia patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 11701174.
Bharani N. and Snowden M. (2005). Evidence-based interventions for nursing home residents with dementia-related behavioral symptoms. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 28, 9851005.
Borson S. and Raskind M. A. (1997). Clinical features and pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 48, S17.
Brodaty H.et al. (2003). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for the treatment of aggression, agitation, and psychosis of dementia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 134143.
Burns B. J., Wagner H. R., Taube J. E., Magaziner J., Permutt T. and Landerman L. R. (1993). Mental health service use by the elderly in nursing homes. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 331337.
Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health (2006). National Guidelines for Seniors’ Mental Health: The Assessment and Treatment of Mental Health Issues in Long Term Care Homes. Ontario: Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health.
Cantillon M., Brunswick R., Molina D. and Bahro M. (1996). Buspirone vs. haloperidol: a double-blind trial for agitation in a nursing home population with Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, 263267.
Cohen-Mansfield J. and Jensen B. (2008). Nursing home physicians’ knowledge of and attitudes toward nonpharmacological interventions for treatment of behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9, 491498.
Cohen-Mansfield J. and Libin A. (2004). Assessment of agitation in elderly patients with dementia: correlations between informant rating and direct observation. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 881889.
Cohen-Mansfield J. and Mintzer J. E. (2005). Time for change: the role of nonpharmacological interventions in treating behavior problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 19, 3740.
Cohen-Mansfield J., Lipson S., Werner P., Billig N., Taylor L. and Woosley R. (1999). Withdrawal of haloperidol, thioridazine, and lorazepam in the nursing home. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 17331740.
Cohen-Mansfield J., Thein K., Marx M. S. and Dakheel-Ali D. (2012). What are the barriers to performing nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in the nursing home? Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13, 400405.
Conn D. K. (Ed.). (1992). Mental health issues in long-term care facilities. In Practical Psychiatry in the Nursing Home: A Handbook for Staff. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers.
Conn D. K. and Seitz D. P. (2010). Advances in the treatment of psychiatric disorders in long-term care homes. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23, 516521.
Cooney C., Mortimer A., Smith A., Newton K. and Wrigley M. (1996). Carbamazepine use in aggressive behaviour associated with senile dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 901905.
De Deyn P. P.et al. (1999 ). A randomized trial of risperidone, placebo, and haloperidol for behavioral symptoms of dementia. Neurology, 53, 946955.
De Deyn P. P.et al. (2004). Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of psychosis with or without associated behavioral disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 115126.
Fabian T. J.et al. (2004). Paroxetine-induced hyponatremia in older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 327332.
Fahey T., Montgomery A. A., Barnes J. and Protheroe J. (2003). Quality of care for elderly residents in nursing homes and elderly people living at home: controlled observational study. BMJ, 326, 580584.
Fontaine C. S., Hynan L. S., Koch K., Martin-Cook K., Svetlik D. and Weiner M. F. (2003). A double-blind comparison of olanzapine versus risperidone in the acute treatment of dementia-related behavioral disturbances in extended care facilities. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 726730.
Gaber S., Ronzoli S., Bruno A. and Biagi A. (2001). Sertraline versus small doses of haloperidol in the treatment of agitated behavior in patients with dementia. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 33 (Suppl.), 159162.
Gauthier S., Cummings J., Ballard C., Brodaty H., Grossberg G., Robert P. and Lyketsos C. (2010). Management of behavioral problems in Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 346372.
Gehrman P. R., Connor D. J., Martin J. L., Shochat T., Corey-Bloom J. and Ancoli-Israel S. (2009). Melatonin fails to improve sleep or agitation in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 166169.
Gill S. S.et al. (2005). Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 330, 445.
Gill S. S.et al. (2007). Antipsychotic drug use and mortality in older adults with dementia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 775786.
Gruber-Baldini A. L., Boustani M., Sloane P. D. and Zimmerman S. (2004). Behavioral symptoms in residential care/assisted living facilities: prevalence, risk factors, and medication management. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 16101617.
Hall K. A., Keks N. A. and O'Connor D. W. (2005). Transdermal estrogen patches for aggressive behavior in male patients with dementia: a randomized, controlled trial. International Psychogeriatrics, 17, 165178.
Herrmann N. and Lanctot K. L. (2005). Do atypical antipsychotics cause stroke? CNS Drugs, 19, 91103.
Herrmann N. and Lanctot K. L. (2007). Pharmacologic management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer disease. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (Revue canadienne de psychiatrie), 52, 630646.
Herrmann N., Mamdani M. and Lanctot K. L. (2004). Atypical antipsychotics and risk of cerebrovascular accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1113.
Herrmann N., Gauthier S. and Lysy P. G. (2007). Clinical practice guidelines for severe Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's and Dementia, 3, 385397.
Hien Le T. T.et al. (2005). Aytypical antipsychotic medications and risk of falls in residents of aged care facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 12901295.
Higgins J. P. T. and Green S. (2008). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Holmes C.et al. (2007). Risperidone and rivastigmine and agitated behaviour in severe Alzheimer's disease: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 380381.
Howard R. J.et al. (2007). Donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 13821392.
Huertas D.et al. (2007). Antiaggressive effect of cyproterone versus haloperidol in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized double-blind pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 439444.
Huybrechts K. F., Rothman K. J., Silliman R. A., Brookhart M. A. and Schneeweiss S. (2011). Risk of death and hospital admission for major medical events after initiation of psychotropic medications in older adults admitted to nursing homes. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 183, E411E419.
Jalbert J. J., Eaton C. B., Miller S. C. and Lapane K. L. (2010). Antipsychotic use and the risk of hip fracture among older adults afflicted with dementia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 11, 120127.
Kales H. C.et al. (2007). Mortality risk in patients with dementia treated with antipsychotics versus other psychiatric medications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 15681576.
Kales H. C.et al. (2011). Trends in antipsychotic use in dementia 1999–2007. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 190197.
Katz I. R., Jeste D. V., Mintzer J. E., Clyde C., Napolitano J. and Brecher M. (1999). Comparison of risperidone and placebo for psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia: a randomized, double-blind trial. Risperidone Study Group. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 107115.
Kindermann S. S., Dolder C. R., Bailey A., Katz I. R. and Jeste D. V. (2002). Pharmacological treatment of psychosis and agitation in elderly patients with dementia: four decades of experience. Drugs and Aging, 19, 257276.
Konavalov S., Muralee S. and Tampi R. R. (2007). Anticonvulsants for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a literature review. International Psychogeriatrics, 20, 293308.
Kozman M. N., Wattis J. and Curran S. (2006). Pharmacological management of behavioral and psychological disturbance in dementia. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 21, 112.
Kyomen H. H., Satlin A., Hennen J. and Wei J. Y. (1999). Estrogen therapy and aggressive behavior in elderly patients with moderate-to-severe dementia. Results from a short-term, randomized, double-blind trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 339348.
Lanctot K. L.et al. (1998). Efficacy and safety of neuroleptics in behavioral disorders associated with dementia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 550561; quiz 562–563.
Larrayadieu A.et al. (2011). Associated factors with antipsychotic use in assisted living facilities: a cross-sectional study in 4367 residents. Age and Ageing, 40, 368375.
Lexchin J., Bero L. A., Djulbegovic B. and Clark O. (2003). Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. British Medical Journal, 326, 11671170.
Meeks S. (1996). Psychological consultation to nursing homes: description of a six-year practice. Psychotherapy, 33, 1929.
Mintzer J.et al. (2006). Risperidone in the treatment of psychosis of Alzheimer disease: results from a prospective clinical trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 280291.
Mintzer J. E.et al. (2007). Aripiprazole for the treatment of psychoses in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer dementia: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment of three fixed doses. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 918931.
Moher D., Liberati A., Tetzlaff J., Altman D. G. and The Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLOS Medicine, 6, e1000097.
Nijk R. M., Zuidema S. U. and Koopmans R. T. C. M. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug use in Dutch nursing-home patients with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 21, 485493.
Olin J. T., Fox L. S., Pawluczyk S., Taggart N. A. and Schneider L. S. (2001). A pilot randomized trial of carbamazepine for behavioral symptoms in treatment-resistant outpatients with Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 400405.
Peskind E. R.et al. (2005). Propranolol for disruptive behaviors in nursing home residents with probable or possible Alzheimer disease: a placebo-controlled study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 19, 2328.
Pitkala K. H., Laurila J., Strandberg T. and Tilvis R. (2004). Behavioral symptoms and the administration of psychotropic drugs to aged patients with dementia in nursing homes and in acute geriatric wards. International Psychogeriatrics, 16, 6174.
Pollock B. G.et al. (2002). Comparison of citalopram, perphenazine, and placebo for the acute treatment of psychosis and behavioral disturbances in hospitalized, demented patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 460465.
Pollock B. G.et al. (2007). A double-blind comparison of citalopram and risperidone for the treatment of behavioral and psychotic symptoms associated with dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 942952.
Porsteinsson A. P.et al. (2001). Placebo-controlled study of divalproex sodium for agitation in dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 5866.
Rappaport S. A., Marcus R. N., Manos G., McQuade R. D. and Oren D. A. (2009). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled tolerability study of intramuscular aripiprazole in acutely agitated patients with Alzheimer's, vascular, or mixed dementia. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 10, 2127.
Reichman W. E.et al. (1998). Psychiatric consultation in the nursing home: a survey of six states. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, 320327.
Rochon P. A.et al. (2007). Variation in nursing home antipsychotic prescribing rates. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167, 676683.
Rochon P. A.et al. (2008). Antipsychotic therapy and short-term serious events in older adults with dementia. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168, 10901096.
Ruths S., Straand J., Nygaard H. A., Bjorvatn B. and Pallesen S. (2004). Effect of antipsychotic withdrawal on behavior and sleep/wake activity in nursing home residents with dementia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study the bergen district nursing home study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 17371743.
Ruths S., Straand J., Nygaard H. A. and Aarsland D. (2008). Stopping antipsychotic drug therapy in demented nursing home patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled study – the Bergen District Nursing Home Study (BEDNURS). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 889895.
Saddichha S. and Pandey V. (2008). Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementia: a critical review of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 23, 150161.
Schneider L. S., Dagerman K. S. and Insel P. (2005). Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294, 19341943.
Schneider L. S., Pollock V. E. and Lyness S. A. (1990). A metaanalysis of controlled trials of neuroleptic treatment in dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38, 553563.
Schneider L. S., Dagerman K. and Insel P. S. (2006a). Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 191210.
Schneider L. S.et al. (2006b). Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 15251538.
Seitz D. P., Gruneir A., Conn D. K. and Rochon P. A. (2009). Cholinesterase inhibitor use in U.S. nursing homes: results from the National Nursing Home Survey. In American Association of Geriatric Psychiatry Annual Meeting. Honolulu, HA.
Seitz D., Purandare N. and Conn D. (2010). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older adults in long-term care homes: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 10251039.
Seitz D., Adenuri N., Gill S. S., Gruneir A., Herrmann N. and Rochon P. A. (2011). Antidepressants for psychosis and agitation in dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, February 16, CD008191.
Seitz D. P.et al. (2012). Efficacy and feasibility of non-pharmacological interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long-term care: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13, 503506.e2.
Selbaek G., Kirkevold O. and Engedal K. (2007). The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances and the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 843849.
Selbaek G., Kirkevold O. and Engedal K. (2008). The course of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms and the use of psychotropic medication in patients with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes – a 12-month follow-up study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 528536.
Sink K. M., Holden K. F. and Yaffe K. (2005). Pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: a review of the evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 596608.
Snowden M., Sato K. and Roy-Byrne P. (2003 ). Assessment and treatment of nursing home residents with depression or behavioral symptoms associated with dementia: a review of the literature. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 13051317.
Snowdon J., Galanos D. and Vaswani D. (2011). Patterns of psychotropic medication use in nursing homes: surveys in Sydney, allowing comparisons over time and between countries. International Psychogeriatrics.
Sommer O. H., Aga O., Cvancarova M., Olsen I. C., Selbaek G. and Engedal K. (2009). Effect of oxcarbazepine in the treatment of agitation and aggression in severe dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27, 155163.
Street J. S.et al. (2000). Olanzapine treatment of psychotic and behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease in nursing care facilities: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 968976.
Streim J. E.et al. (2008). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of aripiprazole for the treatment of psychosis in nursing home patients with Alzheimer disease. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 537550.
Sultzer D. L.et al. (2008). Clinical symptom responses to atypical antipsychotic medications in Alzheimer's disease: phase 1 outcomes from the CATIE-AD effectiveness trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 844854.
Sutor B., Rummans T. A. and Smith G. E. (2001). Assessment and management of behavioral disturbances in nursing home patients with dementia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76, 540550.
Takkouche B., Montes-Martinez A., Gill S. S. and Etminan M. (2007). Psychotropic medications and the risk of fracture: a meta-analysis. Drug Safety, 30, 171184.
Tariot P. N.et al. (1998 ). Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for agitation and aggression in dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 5461.
Tariot P. N.et al. (2001). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease in the nursing home setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49, 15901599.
Tariot P. N.et al. (2005). Divalproex sodium in nursing home residents with possible or probable Alzheimer disease complicated by agitation: a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 942949.
Tariot P. N.et al. (2006). Quetiapine treatment of psychosis associated with dementia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 767776 [Erratum: (2006). American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 988].
Tariot P. N.et al. (2011). Chronic divalproex sodium to attenuate agitation and clinical progression of Alzheimer disease. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 853861.
Trifiro G., Dieleman J., Sen E. F., Gambassi G. and Sturkenboom M. C. (2010). Risk of ischemic stroke associated with antidepressant drug use in elderly persons. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 252258.
Turner E. H., Matthews A. M., Linardatos E., Tell R. A. and Rosenthal R. (2008). Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 252260.
Van Reekum R., Clarke D., Conn D., Hermann N., Eryavec G., Cohen T. and Ostrander L. (2002). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the discontinuation of long-term antipsychotics in dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 14, 197210.
Verhey F. R. J., Verkaaik M. and Lousberg R. (2006). Olanzapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of agitation in elderly patients with dementia: results of a randomized controlled double-blind trial. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21, 18.
Vestergaard P., Rejnmark L. and Mosekilde L. (2006). Anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants, neuroleptics and the risk of fracture. Osteoporosis International, 17, 807816.
Vigen C. L.et al. (2011). Cognitive effects of atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with Alzheimer's disease: outcomes from CATIE-AD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 831839.
Wang P. S.et al. (2005). Risk of death in elderly users of conventional vs. atypical antipsychotic medications. New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 23352341.
Wang L. Y.et al. (2009). Prazosin for the treatment of behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease with agitation and aggression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 744751.
Wu C. S., Wang S. C., Cheng Y. C. and Gau S. S. (2011). Association of cerebrovascular events with antidepressant use: a case-crossover study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 511521.
Zhong K. X., Tariot P. N., Mintzer J., Minkwitz M. C. and Devine N. A. (2007). Quetiapine to treat agitation in dementia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Current Alzheimer Research, 4, 8193.
Zuidema S., Koopmans R. and Verhey F. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively impaired nursing home patients. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 20, 4149.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Seitz supplementary material
Seitz supplementary material

 Word (13 KB)
13 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 39
Total number of PDF views: 421 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 588 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.