Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

  • Jacki Stansfeld (a1) (a2), Charlotte R. Stoner (a3), Jennifer Wenborn (a1) (a2), Myrra Vernooij-Dassen (a4), Esme Moniz-Cook (a5) and Martin Orrell (a6)...
Abstract
ABSTRACT Background:

Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice.

Method:

A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties.

Results:

Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory.

Conclusions:

There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Jacki Stansfeld, Division of Psychiatry, University College London, Maple House, 149 Tottenham Court Road, London, W1T 7NF. Phone: +0300-555-1200 ext 64491/07834392294. Email: Jacki.Stansfeld@nelft.nhs.uk.
References
Hide All
AiA. L., TiceT. N., PetersonC. and HuangB. (2005). Prayers, spiritual support, and positive attitudes in coping with the September 11 national crisis. Journal of Personality, 73, 763792.
Alzheimer's Society (2014). Dementia 2014: Opportunity for Change. London: Alzheimer's Society.
AneshenselC. S., PearlinL. I., MullanJ. T., ZaritS. H. and WhitlatchC. J. (1995). Profiles in Caregiving: The Unexpected Career. London: Academic Press.
AntonovskyA. (1993). The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Social Science & Medicine, 36, 725733.
BeckA. T., SteerR. A. and BrownG. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
CarbonneauH., CaronC. and DesrosiersJ. (2010). Development of a conceptual framework of positive aspects of caregiving in dementia. Dementia, 9, 327353.
ClarkeC. and WolversonE. (2016). Positive Psychology Approaches to Dementia. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
ConnorK. M. and DavidsonJ. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: the connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18, 7682.
CooperC., BalamuraliT. B. S., SelwoodA. and LivingstonG. (2007). A systematic review of intervention studies about anxiety in carers of people with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 181188.
CrellinN. E., OrrellM., McDermottO. and CharlesworthG. (2014). Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life in family carers of people with dementia: a systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 18, 954969.
CrespoM., LopezJ., and ZaritS. H. (2005). Depression and anxiety in primary carers: a comparative study of carers of demented and nondemented older persons. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 591592.
DickinsonC., DowJ., GibsonG., HayesL., RobalinoS. and RobinsonL. (2016). Psychosocial intervention for carers of people with dementia: what components are most effective and when? a systematic review of systematic reviews. International Psychogeriatrics, 26, 113.
FarranC. J., MillerB. H., KaufmanJ. E., DonnerE. and FoggL. (1999). Finding meaning through caregiving: development of an instrument for family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 11071125.
FortinskyR. H., KercherK. and BurantC. J. (2002). Measurement and correlates of family caregiver self-efficacy for managing dementia. Aging & Mental Health, 6, 153160.
GoughH. R., WilksS. E. and PrattiniR. J. (2010). Spirituality among Alzheimer's caregivers: psychometric reevaluation of the intrinsic spirituality scale. Journal of Social Service Research, 36, 278288.
HodgeD. R. (2003). The intrinsic spirituality scale: a new six-item instrument for assessing the salience of spirituality as a motivational construct. Journal of Social Service Research, 30, 4161.
KeyesC. L. M. and LopezS. J. (2005). Toward a science of mental health: Positive directions in diagnosis and interventions. In Snyder C. R. and Lopez S. J. (eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 4562). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
KoernerS. S., KenyonD. B. and ShiraiY. (2009). Caregiving for elder relatives: which caregivers experience personal benefits/gains?. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48, 238245.
LawtonM. P., MossM., KlebanM. H., GlicksmanA. and RovineM. (1991). A two-factor model of caregiving appraisal and psychological well-being. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 181189.
LazarusR. S. and FolkmanS. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer publishing company.
MacaskillA. (2016). Review of positive psychology applications in clinical medical populations. Healthcare, 4, 66.
MoherD., LiberatiA., TetzlaffJ. and AltmanD. G. (2009). Preferred reporting item carers: a comparative study of carers of demented and nondemented older persons. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 591592.
OrgetaV. and LeungP. (2015). Personality and dementia caring: a review and commentary. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 28, 5765.
PearlinL. I., MullanJ. T., SempleS. J. and SkaffM. M. (1990). Caregiving and the stress process: an overview of concepts and their measures. The Gerontologist, 30, 583594.
PetersonC. and SeligmanM. E. P. (2003) Values in Action (VIA) classification of strengths manual. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.485.384&rep=rep1&type=pdf
PicotS. J., YoungblutJ. and ZellerR. (1997). Development and testing of a measure of perceived caregiver rewards in adults. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 5, 3352.
RoffL. L., BurgioL. D., GitlinL., NicholsL., ChaplinW. and HardinJ. M. (2004). Positive aspects of Alzheimer's caregiving: the role of race. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 59, 185190.
RyffC. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 10691081.
SeligmanM. E., SteenT. A., ParkN. and PetersonC. (2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410421.
SpielbergerC. D., JacobsG., RussellS. and CraneR. S. (1983). Assessment of anger: the state-trait anger scale. Advances in Personality Assessment, 2, 159187.
SteffenA. M., McKibbinC., ZeissA. M., Gallagher-ThompsonD. and BanduraA. (2002). The revised scale for caregiving self-efficacy reliability and validity studies. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57, 7486.
StonerC. R., OrrellM. and SpectorA. (2015). Review of positive psychology outcome measures for chronic illness, traumatic brain injury and older adults: adaptability in dementia? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 40, 340357.
TarlowB. J., WisniewskiS. R., BelleS. H., RubertM., OryM. G. and Gallagher-ThompsonD. (2004). Positive aspects of caregiving contributions of the reach project to the development of new measures for Alzheimer's caregiving. Research on Aging, 26, 429453.
TerweeC. B. et al. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60, 3442.
TremontG. (2011). Family caregiving in dementia. Medicine and Health, Rhode Island, 94, 3648.
Vernooij-DassenM. J. F. J. (1993). Dementia and Homecare: Determinants of the Sense of Competence of Primary Caregivers and the Effect of Professionally Guided Caregiver Support. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Vernooij-DassenM. J., FellingA. J., BrummelkampE., DauzenbergM. G., BosG. A. and GrolR. (1999). Assessment of caregiver's competence in dealing with the burden of caregiving for a dementia patient: a short sense of competence questionnaire (SSCQ) suitable for clinical practice. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 256257.
Vernooij-DassenM. J., PersoonJ. M. and FellingA. J. (1996). Predictors of sense of competence in caregivers of demented persons. Social Science & Medicine, 43, 4149.
WilksS. E. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of the shortened resilience scale among Alzheimer's caregivers. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 23, 143149.
WilksS. E., KetchumM. M., ChenZ. and BowmanA. M. (2013). Psychometric reevaluation of the spiritual support scale in a sample of Alzheimer's caregivers. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 32, 313329.
WilksS. E., LittleK. G., GoughH. R. and SpurlockW. J. (2011). Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 54, 260275.
WindleG., BennettK. M. and NoyesJ. (2011). A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, 8.
World Health Organization. (2012). Dementia: A public Health Priority. Switzerland: World Health Organization.
YapP., LuoN., NgW. Y., ChionhH. L., LimJ. and GohJ. (2010). Gain in Alzheimer care instrument—a new scale to measure caregiving gains in dementia. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 6876.
ZhangS. Y., EdwardsH., YatesP., RuthE. and GuoQ. H. (2012). Development of self-efficacy questionnaire for Chinese family caregivers. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 21, 358365.
ZhangS. Y., EdwardsH., YatesP., RuthE. and GuoQ. (2013). Preliminary reliability and validity testing of a self-efficacy questionnaire for Chinese family caregivers. Aging & Mental Health, 5, 630637.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 17
Total number of PDF views: 149 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 555 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 17th May 2017 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.