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Instructions for authors

International Psychogeriatrics

Please read these instructions carefully before submitting articles. Articles which are not prepared in accordance with these guidelines will be returned to authors unreviewed.

Scope and contributions

International Psychogeriatrics is written by and for those doing clinical, teaching, and research work concerning mental health of older people. It is the official journal of the International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) and is published by Cambridge University Press. Although it is concerned primarily with psychogeriatrics, the journal welcomes contributions from all concerned with the field of mental health and aging. Original research papers are particularly sought.

Contributions include original research articles, reviews of the literature, brief reports, letters to the editor, and invited commentaries and guest editorials. Apart from commentaries and editorials, which are commissioned, contributions to International Psychogeriatrics are prepared and submitted by authors. Papers that are not rejected after initial review by the Editor-in-Chief or his representative, are reviewed by at least two expert reviewers selected by the Editor-in Chief. The journal is published twelve times per annum. Submission of a paper implies that it is neither under consideration for publication elsewhere, nor previously published. Manuscripts must be formatted double-spaced with ample margins on all sides and the pages should be numbered. Please leave a spare line between paragraphs to enable typesetters to identify paragraph breaks without ambiguity. International Psychogeriatrics uses the spelling of American English. Manuscripts written by those whose primary language is not English should be edited carefully for language prior to submission.

The journal does not publish papers whose sole focus is the validation of translated instruments that have previously been well assessed and validated in English or another language. These articles are better placed in a relevant National, rather than an International, journal. (A rare exception may be when social or cultural issues of international significance are clearly involved.) Case reports may be considered for publication only as Letters to the Editor.

Special Note:

Since this is International Psychogeriatrics, the authors should seek to highlight international significance of their article in terms of clinical practice, training, or research in different parts of the world. The authors are also advised to go over recent issues of International Psychogeriatrics to review papers on related topics, and add how their new submission advances the field further.

Submission of manuscripts

It is not acceptable to submit an article to the journal that has been previously published or is being submitted simultaneously elsewhere. Authors are required to assert that they have not submitted their article elsewhere upon submission to International Psychogeriatrics.

Manuscripts should be submitted online via our manuscript submission and tracking site, Full instructions for electronic submission are available directly from this site. If you are unsure of the suitability of your manuscript, please e-mail the abstract to the Journal Office before submitting online:

To facilitate rapid reviewing, communications for peer review will be electronic and authors will need to supply a current e-mail address when registering to use the system.

When submitting your manuscript you will need to supply each of the following:

  •  A cover letter
  • The manuscript as a text file in MS Word format (font Arial, minimum size 11)
  • Up to 5 suggested reviewers, including their names, institutions, email addresses, and the reason for their appropriateness as reviewers for your article
  • All figures in TIFF or JPEG format.

If the paper reports the results of a randomized controlled trial please ensure that it conforms to our requirements listed below under the heading ‘Submission of randomized clinical trials’ section of these instructions. If the research was paid for by a funding organization, the cover letter must contain the following three statements (this information does not have to be included in the manuscript itself but only in the cover letter). If the research was not paid for by a funding organization only the third statement is required:

  • That the authors have not entered into an agreement with the funding organization that has limited their ability to complete the  research as planned and publish the results.
  • That the authors have had full control of all the primary data.
  • That the authors are willing to allow the journal to review their data if requested.

Submission of a manuscript will be taken to imply that all listed authors have seen the final version and approved it.

All papers judged to be appropriate for further review will be assessed by two or more reviewersThe Editor-in-Chief’s decision to accept, reject or request revision of the paper for publication will be final. The abstract and author details will be seen by prospective reviewers of the manuscript. Authors should suggest the names and contact information of experts qualified to review the work, but the Editor-in-Chief is not obliged to follow these suggestions. Papers must bear the authors’ names, titles (e.g., Dr, Professor, etc.), affiliation(s), and address(es). This information will be seen by reviewers. Reviewers’ names will not be supplied to authors unless a reviewer asks to be so identified. Authors will be provided with a copyright transfer form to sign after acceptance of the manuscript, consenting to publication of the paper in International Psychogeriatrics.

All submissions are acknowledged electronically upon receipt.  Most authors can expect to receive an initial decision regarding their paper together with referees’ reports within 8 to 10 weeks of submission. Authors who have received no further communication 90 days after acknowledgment of receipt of their article should contact

Article Types

Regular Research Articles: Regular Research Articles are original papers demonstrating the results of scientific studies, based on empirical data. The text of the article should contain no more than 5,000 words, in addition to an abstract of 250 words and up to 60 references. This word count includes only the main body of text (i.e., not abstract, references, tables, or figures).

Brief Reports: This category allows for articles that are shorter than original research but have the same style and may be used to report new and innovative research and/or significant (hot topics). Brief reports are also peer reviewed. They should be of 2,000 words or less and include no more than two figures or tables, no more than 10 references, and have an abstract of no more than 250 words, without structured sub-headings.

Reviews of the Literature: Authors intending to submit a literature review should check recent issues of International Psychogeriatrics to ensure that no review of the topic they propose to discuss has been published in the journal in recent times. Review articles should be of 6,000 words or less, have an abstract of up to 250 words, and may have up to 80 relevant references. Authors contemplating the submission of a literature review article are welcome to contact the editor to discuss the appropriateness of the topic prior to submission ( Literature reviews should have an abstract.

Letters to the Editor: Reader's letters will be considered for publication. Letters should be no longer than 750 words, with no more than 1 table or figure, and no more than 10 references. No abstract is required.

Guest Editorials and Invited Commentaries are commissioned by the editor.

Organization and style of manuscripts

Title page and corresponding author: Each article must have a title page with the title of the article, a list of all authors and their titles, affiliations and addresses. Each author must select only ONE country as their location. Author qualifications should not be listed as these are not published in the journal. The title page should explicitly identify the author to whom correspondence about the study should be addressed and that author’s email address, telephone number, fax number and postal address must be clearly stated.

Abstract (Structured): Abstracts for original research and reviews should be structured and incorporate the following headings: Objectives, Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention (if any), Measurements, Results, and Conclusions. Abstracts should communicate the primary findings and significance of the research. They should not exceed 300 words in length. Abstracts for brief reports should not exceed 300 words and should not be structured with sub-headings.

Keywords: Under this heading and beneath the abstract, please list up to 8 words for the purpose of indexing.

Running title: This should contain no more than 50 characters including spaces.

Introduction: Briefly state the relevant background to the study to provide the necessary information and context to enable non-specialists to appreciate the objectives and significance of the paper. Most introductions to articles received for review are too long.

Methods: Materials and procedures should be described in sufficient detail to enable replication. Any statistical procedures used should be outlined and their use should be justified here. Results should not be included in the Method(s) section. If statistical procedures are used, they should be described here in adequate detail. Choice of statistical technique should be justified including some indication of the appropriateness of the data for the technique chosen. Adequacy of the sample size for the statistical technique(s) used must be addressed. If appropriate, a description of the statistical power of the study should be provided. If multiple univariate significant tests are used, probability values (p-values) should be adjusted for multiple comparisons, or alternatively a multivariate test should be considered. Significance results (p values) must be presented with accompanying statistics.

Further advice about statistics and International Psychogeriatrics can be found in the following article: Chibnall, J. (2000) Some basic issues for clinicians concerning things statistical. International Psychogeriatrics, 12, 3-7. The following article may also be of assistance to intending contributors: Chibnall J.T. (2004). Statistical audit of original research articles in International Psychogeriatrics for the year 2003. International Psychogeriatrics 16, 389-396. Both of these are available at the International Psychogeriatrics website by following the above links.

Results: This section may contain subheadings. Authors should avoid mixing discussion with the results. Sample sizes should be delineated clearly for all analyses. Some indicator of variability or sampling error should be incorporated into the reporting of statistical results (e.g. standard deviation). Wherever possible an indicator of effect size (e.g. Cohens d, η², Cramers V, 95% confidence interval) should be reported in addition to p values. If multiple univariate statistical tests are used p values should be adjusted for multiple comparisons or alternatively a multivariate test should be used. Obtained statistical values for tests should be reported with degrees of freedom (e.g. t, F, χ²). Terms such as prevalence, population, or control group, should be used appropriately in the scientific sense.

Discussion: Interpretation of the results with respect to the hypothesis(es) and their significance to the field should be discussed here. Results should be interpreted in the light of the size of the effect found and the power of the study to detect differences. Any methodological and other weaknesses of the study should be outlined, including limitations imposed by sample size. Careful consideration of the conclusion(s) for accuracy and alternative interpretation, and possible conflicts or resolution of conflicts in the field is encouraged. Limited speculation and directions for future research can be included.

Conflict of interest declarationThis section must be completed. This should follow the discussion and precede the references. Where there is no conflict of interest perceived to be present the heading Conflict of Interest should be included with the single word "none" underneath it. For full details see below.

Description of authors’ rolesThis section must be completed if the paper has two or more authors. It should contain a very brief description of the contribution of each author to the research. Their roles in formulating the research question(s), designing the study, carrying it out, analysing the data and writing the article should be made plain. For example: H. Crun designed the study, supervised the data collection and wrote the paper. M. Bannister collected the data and assisted with writing the article. N. Seagoon was responsible for the statistical design of the study and for carrying out the statistical analysis.

Acknowledgements: Any acknowledgements other than conflict of interest declarations in regard to sponsorship should be listed briefly here. Acknowledgements imply that the person/s mentioned have approved the citation of their name/s in the paper.

References: For review papers, no more than 75 articles that have been published or are in press should be cited; for regular research articles no more than 60 references, for brief reports no more than 10 references, for commentaries and editorials no more than 10 references, and for letters no more than 10 references. Unpublished data, personal communications, and manuscripts submitted for publication should be cited in the text and the supporting material submitted with the manuscript. International Psychogeriatrics uses the Harvard referencing system. Within the text of each paper journal articles should be cited in the style (Smith and Jones, 1999). Where an article quoted in the body of the text has more than two authors the term "et al." should be employed, i.e., (Smith et al., 1999). Text citations of multiple articles should be separated by semicolons, i.e., (Smith and Jones, 1999; Smith et al., 1999). At the end of each paper, all cited references should be listed alphabetically in the style indicated below. If the Digital Object Identifier (doi) is known, it should be added to the reference.

Reference examples:

For a journal article: Smith, J., Jones, W. I. and Doe, J. T. (1996). Psychogeriatrics for pleasure and profit: an expanding field. International Journal of Unreproducible Results, 3, 240–242. doi:12.3456/S123456789.

For a book: Smith, J.A., Brown, P.Q., Jones, H.A. and Robinson, D.V. (2001). Acute Confusional States. New York: Cambridge University Press. For a book chapter. Park, K., Tiger, B. and Runn, F. (1999). Psychogeriatrics in context. In G.Verdi and A. Boito, (Eds.) New Medical Specialties (pp. 240–260). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Where an article or book chapter has more than six authors only the first author’s name should be given followed by the words "et al.".

For further examples of reference style see papers in recent issues of International Psychogeriatrics.

Figures/Tables: The manuscript should contain no more than five figures or tables (no more than two figures or tables for brief reports). The copies submitted with the manuscript must be of sufficient quality to enable reviewers to evaluate the data. The journal has a small budget to permit some color to be printed in come issues but authors wishing to publish figures requiring color to communicate the data may be required to pay some or all the additional cost.

Figure/Table legends: Each caption should begin with a brief description of the conclusion or observation provided in the figure. These should be submitted as a separate section after the References.

Supplementary materialInternational Psychogeriatrics has the facility to include supplementary materials (figures, tables, appendices, any non-English sections, and other material not suitable for inclusion in the print version of the journal) with the electronic version of individual papers at This renders such supplementary material accessible without clogging the journal with materials that will be of interest to only a small minority of readers.

If submitting such supplementary material please follow the instructions below. If referring to supplementary material in a paper the following form of words should be used "see table S1/figure S1/appendix A1 published as supplementary material online attached to the electronic version of this paper at".

There will normally be one of the following reasons for you to be supplying supplementary material to accompany the online version of your article:

  • You wish to link to additional information which due to its nature does not lend itself to print media (examples- full data sets, movie or sounds files etc.)
  • The Editor of the Journal has requested that you extract certain information from the original article in order to allow for space constraints of the print version.
  • You have requested additional material to be available to accompany an article that does not normally allow such material to be included (examples – sections not written in the English language, tables to accompany a correspondence article).

N.B. Please note that no copyediting or quality assurance measures will be undertaken on supplementary material (other than to ensure that the file is intact). The authors therefore warrant that the supplementary material that they submit is in a suitable format for publication in this manner. The material shall be published online in exactly the form that it is supplied.

Submitting Supplementary Material

Please follow these instructions to submit supplementary material:

  • Each supplementary file must be supplied as a separate file. Do not supply this material as part of the file destined for publication in the print journal.
  • Each supplementary file must have a clear title (for example, Supplementary Figure 1).
  • Provide a text summary for each file of no more than 50 words. The summary should describe the contents of the file. Descriptions of individual figures or tables should be provided if these items are submitted as separate files. If a group of figures is submitted together in one file, the description should indicate how many figures are contained within the file and provide a general description of what the figures collectively show.
  • The file type and file size in parentheses.
  • Ensure that each piece of supplementary material is clearly referred to at least once in the print version of the paper at an appropriate point in the text, and is also listed at the end of the paper before the reference section.

Word limits: The text of Review articles should not exceed 6,000 words, Regular research articles 5,000 words, brief reports 2000 words, and letters to the editor 750 words. The text excludes title page, abstract, acknowledgements, references, tables, and figures.  Articles may contain supplementary material which is published online only.    

Format and file size:  File sizes should be as small as possible in order to ensure that users can download them quickly.

Images should be a maximum size of 640 x 480 pixels at a resolution of 72 pixels per inch.

Authors should limit the number of files to under ten, with a total size not normally exceeding 3 MB. Sound/movie files may be up to 10 MB per file; color PDFs/PowerPoint may be up to 5 MB per file; all other general file types may be up to 2 MB per file but most files should be much smaller.

We accept files in any of the following formats (if in doubt please enquire first):

MS Word document (.doc) , Adobe Acrobat (.pdf), Plain ASCII text (.txt), Rich Text Format (.rtf), WordPerfect document (.wpd), HTML document (.htm), MS Excel spreadsheet (.xls), GIF image (.gif), JPEG image (.jpg), TIFF image (.tif), MS PowerPoint slide (.ppt), QuickTime movie (.mov), Audio file (.wav), Audio file (.mp3), MPEG/MPG animation (.mpg)

If your file sizes exceed these limits or if you cannot submit in these formats, please seek advice from the editor handling your manuscript.

Submission of papers reporting randomized controlled trials

In order to ensure the public availability of the results of randomized controlled trials, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors has suggested that all such trials should be registered. In common with many leading medical journals International Psychogeriatrics has decided to follow this policy. We will not review any paper submitted to us reporting a randomized clinical trial unless the trial was registered in a public trial registry from the date it commenced recruitment.

All manuscripts reporting randomized controlled trials should have the following sent with them or they will be returned to the authors.

  • A check list and flow chart in accordance with the CONSORT guidelines which can be found at Please send in the checklist as a supplementary file and include the flow chart as Figure 1 in the manuscript.
  • The trial protocol is to be submitted as a supplementary file. This will not be published but it is needed to appraise and peer review the paper. If the protocol is already published, a copy of that paper should be submitted.
  • The registration number of the trial and the name of the trial registry in which it was registered. Please add these to the last line of the paper’s structured abstract. Trials must have been registered in a public trials registry at or before the onset of enrolment to be considered for publication in International Psychogeriatrics. Our criteria for a suitable public trial registry are: free to access; searchable; identification of trials by unique number; free or minimal cost for registration; validation of registered information; inclusion of details to identify the trial and the investigator within the registered entry (including the status of the trial); research question; methodology; intervention; and funding and sponsorship disclosed.

Conflict of Interest

Conflict of interest occurs when authors have interests that might influence their judgement inappropriately, regardless of whether that judgement is influenced inappropriately or not. International Psychogeriatrics aims to conform to the policies of the World Association of Medical Editors in regard to conflict of interest. For full details please see the website To this end all authors must disclose potential conflicts of interest so that others may be aware of their possible effects. Specifically, under the heading conflict of interest, all articles must detail:

The source(s) of financial support for the research (if none, write "none").

A description of any sponsor’s role(s) in the research (e.g., formulation of research question(s), choice of study design, data collection, data analysis and decision to publish).

Information about any financial relationship between any author and any organization with a vested interest in the conduct and reporting of the study. For example, in a study on the effects of a drug made by Bigpharma which directly competes with another drug made by Megadrug a declaration might say "Jane Smith has received research support and speaker’s honoraria from Bigpharma and has received financial assistance from Megadrug to enable her attend conferences."

Open Access

Authors in International Psychogeriatrics have the option to publish their paper under a fully Open Access agreement, upon payment of a one-off Article Processing Charge (APC). In this case, the final published Version of Record will be made freely available to all in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license, enabling its reuse and re-distribution. This Open Access option is only offered to authors upon acceptance of an article for publication.

Authors choosing the Open Access option are required to complete the Open Access Transfer of Copyright form, which can be found here. More information about Open Access in International Psychogeriatrics can be found here.

The current APC for International Psychogeriatrics is $2980 / £1870.

Please note: APC collection is managed on behalf of Cambridge University Press by RightsLink, who will contact authors following acceptance of their paper.

Author Language Services

Cambridge recommends that authors have their manuscripts checked by an English language native speaker before submission; this will ensure that submissions are judged at peer review exclusively on academic merit. Authors can enlist the help of a third-party services specializing in language editing and / or translation (, and suggest that authors contact as appropriate. Use of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense.

Supply of author-generated artwork

Monochrome line subject illustrations supplied in digital form

Macromedia Freehand, Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop are the preferred graphics packages. Before submitting your artwork, please do the following:

Where possible, please supply illustrations as TIFF or EPS files (300 dpi). When submitting EPS files you must convert your text within the file to artwork/outlines. If your EPS file contains a scanned image, you must ensure that you supply a full EPS, i.e. binary data. Do not supply PostScript files. PostScript files cannot be included within our integrated page make-up system, or worked on in any way. For best results please save your files as TIFF or EPS files. If files cannot be supplied in this way other formats can be handled (although we do not guarantee to use them).

Draw or scan line artwork to finished size with appropriate line weights and typefaces.

Indicate the file format (e.g. TIFF or EPS), the graphics software that you have used in originating the artwork files (e.g. Freehand 7.0, Illustrator 8.0, etc.) and the computer operating system used (e.g. Mac OS 8.6, Windows NT).

Supply a laser print of all figures. List the name and version of the artwork package used and the names and libraries of fonts used in the artwork or EPS files.

Pattern fills and tints

Artwork packages do not always generate pattern fills for output on image/platesetters. Imagesetters will interpret them differently from your Mac or PC and the result often looks pixelated or blocked. Where possible, use PostScript fills, custom fills and conventional tints. 9

PostScript fills frequently do not display well on screen but they do print out correctly. It is best to avoid the use of complex or very detailed tints, patterns and symbols. These seldom reproduce satisfactorily when reduced to fit the page and when used in a caption or legend may be completely illegible when represented on a screen (for example during page make-up, or on the Web) or when output on low-quality CUP artwork instructions.doc 2 laser printers. Supplying as TIFF or EPS files (see above) alleviates this problem.

Please therefore:

  • Use only the tints, patterns and symbols shown here.
  • Use conventional fills: solids, tints, lines or cross-hatching.
  • Use a PostScript fill if possible.
  • Do not use a screen value above 133 lpi. Generally, 100 lpi is better (even when scanned at high resolution finer tints do not reproduce satisfactorily when reduced).
  • If possible, use just one kind of screen (line angle or dot shape) and one screen value throughout the document.
  • Do not use pattern fills from a graphics program, as these are usually bitmap patterns, which do not output adequately to plate/image setters.
  • Do not use color tints, even if the figure is intended for monochrome printing; use black/white/greyscale.
  • Do not use .hairline. line widths in graphics packages.

Monochrome halftone subjects

Figures composed of (hard copy) photographs should be unscreened glossy prints presented at publication scale; each component part should be named with a lower-case letter. Photographic artwork is numbered as part of the sequence of figures, not as separate plates.

If supplying these in digital form, your repro house should follow these instructions:

  • Scanning: Scan at a resolution that is around twice the intended screen value; for example scan at 300 dpi for 133 or 150 screen.
  • Dot range (halftones only): This is the term we use to describe the highlight/white area and shadow/black areas within a printed image. To prevent the heavy or dark areas of your halftones from filling in or the light areas being washed out we specify a dot range that allows for gains or losses during the process to lithographic printing. Pre-set the dot range at 1% highlight to 96% shadow where possible, we will check your files before outputting as a safeguard.
  • Data files: Supply data as TIFF files; if you wish to compress them, use lossless compression software such as the LZW compression package.
  • Laser proofs: Supply a good quality laser proof of all figures. List the name and version of the artwork package used and the names and libraries of fonts used in the artwork. If we are unable to use your electronic file, we can scan in the laser proof as an alternative until a revised file can be supplied.
  • Line & tone combination: Files scanned as line & tone combination should be scanned at a higher resolution than a standard halftone to ensure better type/line quality, for example, 600 dpi.

Color halftone or line subjects

Do not submit line subject drawings with colored tints unless the figure is required as a color plate; use only black/white/greyscale.

If supplying color subjects in digital form, submit as TIFF or EPS files and choose CMYK color mode when saving your scans. If you supply files as RGB we need to convert them to the CMYK printing process before we can print, this usually results in a slight change of the color values; therefore all color correction must be carried out in CMYK mode on your machine.

General notes

Following acceptance of a manuscript the contact author should receive proofs within 1-12 weeks. They also will be required to complete and forward a copyright form and authors’ checklist both of which will be forwarded to the corresponding author by email when the article is accepted.

The average time from an article being accepted to being e-published ahead of print as a First View article is 35 days, provided authors return proofs promptly. E-publication generates a doi number and counts as full publication for citation purposes.

Editorials and commentaries are commissioned by the editor.

Reviewers who reviewed papers in the previous calendar year will be acknowledged in the journal each year. International Psychogeriatrics no longer publishes an annual index as modern computerised search techniques have rendered annual hard copy indices obsolete.

Contributors should refer to recent issues of the journal for examples of formatting (abstracts, headings, references, tables, etc.).

Contact Information

Office of the Editor-in-Chief:

Professor Dilip V. Jeste, M.D.

Editor-in-Chief, International Psychogeriatrics,

Senior Associate Dean for Healthy Aging and Senior Care

Estelle and Edgar Levi Chair in Aging

Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Neurosciences

University of California San Diego

San Diego, CA 92093


For business matters:

Kate Filipiak, CAE

Managing Editor, International Psychogeriatrics

Executive Director, International Psychogeriatric Association

555 E. Wells St., Suite 1100

Milwaukee, WI 53202


Tel: +1.414.918.9889