Earlier responses to our initial formulation of the CCMR approach as such by
2 Chiswick, Barry and Miller, Paul W. (eds), Handbook of the Economics of International Migration (Amsterdam, 2014); Bretell, C. and Hollifield, J.F. (eds), Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines (New York and Abingdon, 2015); Acosta Arcarazo, Diego and Wiesbrock, Anja (eds), Global Migration: Old Assumptions, New Dynamics (Santa Barbara, CA, 2015).
3 Alba, R.D. and Nee, V., Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration (Cambridge, MA, 2003).
4 Lucassen, Leo, “Population and Migration”, in P. Clark (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History (Oxford, 2013), pp. 664–682 .
5 J. Lucassen and L. Lucassen, “Theorizing Cross-Cultural Migrations: The Case of Eurasia since 1500”, Social Science History, 41:3 (2017), pp. 445–475.
6 Höhn, M. and Klimke, M., A Breath of Freedom: The Civil Rights Struggle, African American GIs, and Germany (New York, 2010); Lucassen, Leo and Smit, A.X., “The Repugnant Other: Soldiers, Missionaries, and Aid Workers as Organizational Migrants”, The Journal of World History, 26:1 (2015), pp. 1–39 .
7 Ho, E., The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean (Berkeley, CA, 2006); cf. also the impact of tramping artisans, Wanderfögel, or compagnons.
8 Umeno, Y., “Han Chinese Immigrants in Manchuria, 1850–1931”, in J. Lucassen and L. Lucassen (eds), Globalising Migration History: The Eurasian Experience (16 th –21 st centuries) (Leiden, 2014), pp. 307–334 . Although here, too, the migrants themselves changed due to different ecological and cultural characteristics. For a nuanced discussion of processes of Sinification, especially during the Qing period, see Rawski, Evelyn S., The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 1998).
9 For the latter see Lucassen, Leo, “Connecting the World: Migration and Globalization in the Second Millennium”, in C. Antunes and K. Fatah-Black (eds), Explorations in History and Globalization (London and New York, 2016), pp. 19–46 .
10 See V. Ramaswamy, “Mapping Migrations of South Indian Weavers Before, During and After the Vijayanagar Period: Thirteenth to Eighteenth Centuries”, in Lucassen and Lucassen, Globalising Migration History, pp. 91–121; M. Mazard, “The Art of (Not) Looking Back: Reconsidering Lisu Migrations and ‘Zomia’”, in ibid., pp. 215–246; and Umeno, “Han Chinese Immigrants in Manchuria”.
11 Scott, J.C., Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, CT, 1998), and idem, The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia (New Haven, CT, 2009).
12 Mazard, “The Art of (Not) Looking Back”; A. Ota, “Toward Cities, Seas, and Jungles: Migration in the Malay Archipelago, c.1750–1850”, in Lucassen and Lucassen, Globalising Migration History, pp. 180–214.
13 See also Ehmer, Josef, “Quantifying Mobility in Early Modern Europe: The Challenge of Concepts and Data”, Journal of Global History, 6:2 (2011), pp. 327–338 .
14 See also Lucassen and Smit, “The Repugnant Other”, on the impact of organizational migrants.
15 Siegelbaum, L. and Moch, L.P., Broad Is My Native Land: Repertoires and Regimes of Migration in Russia’s Twentieth Century (Ithaca, NY, and London, 2014). These were young urban agricultural and logistics specialists sent to the countryside to transform peasants into Soviet citizens and ensure they fitted into the new collectivist (Kolchoz/Sovchoz) agricultural production system.
16 Kok, Jan, “The Family Factor in Migration Decisions”, in J. Lucassen, L. Lucassen, and P. Manning (eds), Migration History in World History: Multidisciplinary Approaches (Leiden and Boston, MA, 2010), pp. 215–250 ; Moch, L.P., The Pariahs of Yesterday: Breton Migrants in Paris (Durham, NC, 2012); Hoerder, D. and Kaur, A. (eds), Proletarian and Gendered Mass Migrations: A Global Perspective on Continuities and Discontinuities from the 19th to the 21st Centuries (Leiden, 2013); Donato, K.M. and Gabaccia, D., Gender and International Migration (New York, 2015).
17 Lucassen, , “Population and Migration”; Ulbe Bosma, Gijs Kessler, and Leo Lucassen (eds), Migration and Membership Regimes in Global and Historical Perspective (Leiden and Boston, MA, 2013).
18 Wacquant, L., Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality (Cambridge, 2008); Lucassen, “Population and Migration”.
19 Goodman, B., Native Place, City, and Nation: Regional Networks and Identities in Shanghai, 1853–1937 (Berkeley, CA, 1995); Finnane, A., Speaking of Yangzhou: A Chinese City, 1550–1850 (Cambridge, MA, 2004). See also Moll-Murata, C., “Work Ethics and Work Valuations in a Period of Commercialization: Ming China, 1500–1644”, International Review of Social History, 56 (2011), SI 19, pp. 165–196 , 168, on Chinese guilds and their principle of common region of origin.
20 Crawford, R., In the Era of Human Capital: The Emergence of Talent, Intelligence, and Knowledge as the Worldwide Economic Force and What it Means to Managers and Investors (New York, 1991); Lucas, R.E., Lectures on Economic Growth (Cambridge, MA, 2002).
21 Lucas, , Lectures on Economic Growth; Jan de Vries, European Urbanization, 1500–1800 (London, 1984); Davids, Karel and De Munck, Bert (eds), Innovation and Creativity in Late Medieval and Early Modern European Cities (Farnham, 2014).
22 Austin, G. and Sugihara, K. (eds), Labour-Intensive Industrialization in Global History (Abingdon, 2013).
23 A. McKeown, “A Different Transition: Human Mobility in China, 1600–1900”, in Lucassen and Lucassen, Globalising Migration History, p. 287.
24 Lucassen, “Connecting the World”.
25 Lartigue-Vecchie, M., “Les grèves des dockers à Marseille de 1890 à 1903”, Provence Historique, 10 (1960), pp. 146–179 ; Paris, Robert, “Les Italiens et le mouvement ouvrier français de 1870 à 1915”, in Antonio Bechelloni, Michel Dreyfus, and Pierre Milza (eds), L’intégration italienne en France (Paris, 1995); Lucassen, Leo, The Immigrant Threat: The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850 (Urbana and Chicago, IL, 2005), p. 82 . See more generally, Penninx, R. and Roosblad, J. (eds), Trade Unions, Immigration, and Immigrants in Europe, 1960–1993: A Comparative Study of the Attitudes and Actions of Trade Unions in Seven West European Countries (New York, 2000); Milkman, R., L.A. Story: Immigrant Workers and the Future of the US Labor Movement (New York, 2006); Schmitter-Heisler, B., “Trade Unions and Immigrant Incorporation: The US and Europe Compared”, in L. Lucassen, D. Feldman, and J. Oltmer (eds), Paths of Integration: Migrants in Western Europe (1880–2004) (Amsterdam, 2006), pp. 201–221 ; Schall, C.E., The Rise and Fall of the Miraculous Welfare Machine: Immigration and Social Democracy in Twentieth-Century Sweden (Ithaca, NY, and London, 2016).
26 Cordillot, M., Révolutionnaires du Nouveau Monde. Une brève histoire du mouvement socialiste francophone aux États-Unis (1885–1922) (Montreal, 2009); Moya, J.C., Cousins and Strangers: Spanish Immigrants in Buenos Aires, 1850–1930 (Berkeley, CA, 1998); Bantman, C., The French Anarchists in London, 1880–1914: Exile and Transnationalism in the First Globalisation (Liverpool, 2013); Tomchuck, T., Transnational Radicals: Italian Anarchists in Canada and the US, 1915–1940 (Winnipeg, 2015); Baer, J.A., Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina (Urbana and Chicago, IL, 2015); Zimmer, K., Immigrants Against the State: Yiddish and Italian Anarchism in America (Urbana and Chicago, IL, 2015); Bantman, C. and Altena, B. (eds), Reassessing the Transnational Turn: Scales of Analysis in Anarchist and Syndicalist Studies (New York, 2015).
27 G. Kessler, “The Peasant and the Town: Rural-Urban Migration in the Soviet Union, 1929–40” (PhD, European University Institute, 2001); Siegelbaum and Moch, Broad Is My Native Land.
28 For a more cultural and political approach, which includes soldiers, sailors, and traders, see Huber, V., Channelling Mobilities: Migration and Globalisation in the Suez Canal Region and Beyond, 1869–1914 (New York, 2015).
29 Here, “immigrants” mean persons with a cultural background outside the chosen area who migrate into the area at least once. Similarly, “emigrants” are persons with a cultural background in the chosen area who move outward at least once.
1 Earlier responses to our initial formulation of the CCMR approach as such by Ehmer, Josef, Page Moch, Leslie, van Lottum, Jelle, and McKeown, Adam appeared in the Journal of Global History , 6:2 (2011). For this rejoinder, we would like to thank Bas van Leeuwen and Mathies Lucassen for their suggestions regarding the formula and its explanations.
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