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The Stockholm Conference of 1917

  • Hildamarie Meynell

In 1917, in the midst of war, the internationalist ideals of the old Second Socialist International came close to achieving an unparalleled diplomatic triumph of non-governmental initiative by bringing together responsible political leaders of the left from the countries of opposing belligerents to discuss peace terms with neutrals on neutral ground at Stockholm.

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page 4 note 1 Lloyd, George, David, , War Memoirs of David Lloyd George, Ivor Nicholson and Watson, London, 19331936, Vol. IV, pp. 1883–5.

page 4 note 2 Cumming, C. E., and Petit, Walter W., Russian-American Relations: March, 1917- March, 1920: Documents and Papers, Harcourt, Brace and Howe, New York, 1920, pp. 1416.

page 4 note 3 Bourgin, Hubert, Le Parti contre la Patrie, Librairie Pion, Paris, 1924, pp. 208–11.

page 5 note 1 Lloyd George, op.cit., VoL IV, p. 1885; Trades Union Congress, Report of the Proceedings at the Forty-Ninth Annual Trades Union Congress Held in the Palace Hall, Blackpool, on September 3rd to 8th, 1917, T.U.C, and Parliamentary Committee, London, 1917, P-191.

page 5 note 2 The Parliamentary Debates (Official Report): Fifth Series: House of Commons (herefter called “Parliamentary Debates”), His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, Vol. XCVL p. 5888.

page 5 note 3 This more recently familiar epithet is used by Bruce Locfchart in describingthe Russian attitude to the missions.

page 5 note 4 Lockhart, R. H. Bruce, Memoirs of a British Agent, Being an Account of the Author's Early Life in Many Lands and of His Official Mission to Moscow in 1918, Putnam, London, 1932, p. 183; Price, Morgan Philips, My Reminiscences of the Russian Revoution, George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, 1921, pp. 1920.

page 5 note 5 Paléologue, Maurice, An Ambassador's Memoirs, translated by Holt, F. A., Hutchinsonand Co., 1925, VoL III, pp. 299300.

page 6 note 1 Lloyd George, op. cit., pp. 1887–9.

page 6 note 2 SirBuchanan, George, My Mission to Russia and Other Diplomatic Memories, Cassell and Go., Ltd., London, 1923, Vol. II, pp. 142–7; Brockway, Archibald Fermer, Socialism over Sixty Years: The Life of Jowett of Bradford (1884–1944), George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1944, pp. 155–6; Independent Labour Party Report of the Annual Conference Held at Leicester, April, 1918 (hereafter called I.L.P., “Annual Report, 1918”), I.L.P., London, 1918, p. 10.

page 6 note 3 Lockhart, op. cit., pp. 184–5, Paléologue, op.cit., Vol. III, pp. 328–30.

page 6 note 4 Vandervelde, Emile, Souvenirs d'un militant socialiste (hereafter called Vandervelde, “Souvenirs‥.”), Les Editions Denoäl, Paris, 1939, p. 227; de Man, Henri, Cavalier Seul,45 Années de Socialisme européen, Les Editions du Cheval Ailé, Genève, , 1948, p. 93.

page 6 note 5 Vandervelde, Emile, Three Aspects of the Russian Revolution (hereafter called Vanderelde, “Three…”), translated by Findlay, Jean E. H., George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, 1918, p. 7 and p. 199.

page 7 note 1 Vandervelde, Emile, Dans la Mêlée, Berger-Levrault, Editeurs, Paris, 1919, p. 129; Sukhanov, N. N., The Russian Revolution, 1917: A Personal Record, edited and transated by Carmichael, Joel, Oxford University Press, London, 1955, p. 366.

page 7 note 2 Cumming and Petit, op. cit., p. 23; United States, Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: 1918: Russia, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 1931, Vol. I, pp. 107–53; Russell, Charles Edward, Hands, Bare and Walls, Stone: Some Recollections of a Side-line Reformer, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1955, pp. 346–70; Lansing, Robert, War Memoirs of Robert Lansing, Secretary of State, Rich and Cowan, Ltd., London, 1935, pp. 336–8.

page 8 note 1 Scheidemann, Philipp, Memoirs of a Social Democrat (hereafter called Scheidemann, “Memoirs…”), translated by Mitchell, J. E., Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1929, Vol. I, pp. 329–32.

page 8 note 2 ibid, Vol. I, pp. 329–32; Vandervelde, “Three…”, op.cit., pp. 210–1; Carr, Edward, Hallett, The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917–1923, Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, 1953, Vol. III, p. 5.

page 8 note 3 Scheidemann, “Memoirs…”, op.cit., VoL I, pp. 335–6; Manchester, Guardian, The Manchester Guardian, Ltd., Manchester, 15 May, 1917, “‘Real’ Russian Government: In Touch with German Social Democrats”, p. 5; Scheidemann, Philipp, Der Zusammen-bruch, Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaft, 1921, pp. 152–3.

page 9 note 1 Archiv für die Geschichte des Sozialismus und der Arbeiterbewegung (hereafter called “Archiv…”), Verlag von C. L. Hirschfeld, Leipzig, editor: Carl, Grünberg, Vol. XII, p. 362.

page 9 note 2 Scheidemann, “Memoirs…”, op.cit., Vol. I, pp. 355–4; Vernadsky, George Lenin, Red Dictator, translated by Davis, Malcolm Waters, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticutt, 1931, pp. 152–5; Shub, David Lenin: A Biography, Doubleday and Co., Inc., New York, 1951, p. 182; Hoffman, General Max, Der Krieg der versäumten Ge-legenheiten, Hase und Koehler, Leipzig, 1939, p. 127; Carr, op. cit., Vol. III, p. 102; Beer, Max, Fifty Years of International Socialism, George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, 1935, p. 195.

page 10 note 1 Shub, op. cit., pp. 180–1.

page 10 note 2 ibid, pp. 182–3; Guilbeaux, Henri, Du Kremlin au Cherche-Midi (hereafter called Guilbeaux, “Du Kremlin…”), Librairie Gallimard, Paris, 1933, p. 106 and p. 127; Guilbeaux, Henri, Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin, Ein treues Bild seines Wesens (hereafter called Guilbeaux, “Wladimir…”), translated by Rudolf, Leonhard, Verlag “Die Schmiede”, Berlin, 1923, pp. 162–3.

page 10 note 3 Fainsod, Merle, International Socialism and the World War, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1935, pp. 187–8.

page 10 note 4 Scheidemann, “Memoirs…”, op.cit., Vol. I, p. 334; Rosenberg, Arthur, The Birth of the German Republic, 1871–1918, translated by Morrow, Ian F. D., Oxford University Press, London, 1931, p. 156; Ludendorrf, , General, My War Memoirs: 1914–1918, Hutchinson and Co., London, n.d., [1919], pp. 509–10.

page 10 note 5 International Affairs, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 04, 1956, “German Foreign Office Documents on Financial Support to the Bolsheviks in 1917”, George, Katkov, pp. 181–9.

page 11 note 1 Guilbeaux, “Wladimir…”, op.cit., pp. 165–6; Guilbeaux, “Du Kremlin…”, op.cit., pp. 130–3; Shub, op.cit., pp. 183–4.

page 11 note 2 Fainsod, op.cit., p. 149.

page 12 note 1 Comité organisateur de la Conférence socialiste internationale de Stockholm, (hereaftercalled “Stockholm”), Tidens Förlag, Stockholm, , 1918, pp. vivii.

page 12 note 2 Brand, Carl F., British Labour's Rise to Power, Stanford University Press, Stanford University, California, 1941, p. 181.

page 12 note 3 Parti Socialiste (Section Française de l'International Ouvrière), Pendant la Guerre—Le Parti Socialiste, la Guerre et la Paix—Toutes les Résolutions et tous les Documents du Parti socialiste, de Juillet 1914 à Fin 1917 (hereafter called P.S.F., “Pendant la Guerre”), Librairie de l'Humanité, Paris, 1918, pp. 162–5.

page 12 note 4 Louis, Paul, La Crise du Socialisme mondial, de la IIe à la IIIe Internationale, Librairie Felix Alcan, Paris, 1921, p. 64.

page 12 note 5 Fainsod, op.cit., p. 152; “Archiv…”, op.cit., Vol. XII, pp. 370–2; Louis, op.cit., p. 64; Bevan, Edwyn, German Social Democracy during the War, George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., London, 1918, pp. 162–3.

page 12 note 6 Fainsod, op. cit., p. 150.

page 13 note 1 “Stockholm”, op. cit., pp. viii–ix.

page 13 note 2 ibid, p. x; The Times, The Times Publishing Co., Ltd., London, 7 June, 1917, “A German Peace Trap”, p. 7; The Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, Harold Cox, editor, October, 1917, “International Socialism and War”, Shadwell, A. p. 235.

page 13 note 3 United States, Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: 1917, Supplement 2: The World War, Vol. I (hereafter called U.S., “1917”), Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1932, pp. 742–3.

page 13 note 4 Lutz, , Ralph Haswell Fall of the German Empire, 1914–1918, translated by Rempel, David F. and Rendtorff, Gertrude, Stanford University Press, Stanford University, California, 1932, Vol. I, pp. 412–3; Price, op.cit, p. 50; Czernin, , Count Ottokar, In the World War, Cassell and Co., Ltd., London, 1919, pp. 168–9 and p. 333.

page 13 note 5 “Stockholm”, op. cit., p. x.

page 14 note 1 Golder, Frank Alfred, Documents of Russian History, 1914–1917, translated by Aronsberg, Emanuel, The Century Co., New York, 1927, pp. 339–40.

page 14 note 2 Fainsod, op. cit., pp. 152–3; “Archiv…”, op. cit., Vol. XII, p. 372.

page 14 note 3 Gankin, Olga Hess, and Fisher, H. H., The Bolsheviks and the World War: The Origin of the Third International, Stanford University Press, Stanford University, California, 1940, p. 724; “Archiv…”, op.cit., Vol. XII, pp. 363–4; Fainsod, op.cit., pp. 149–50.

page 15 note 1 “Stockholm”, op.cit., p. xii; Fainsod, op.cit., p. 134.

page 15 note 2 U.S., “1917”, op.cit., p. 118.

page 16 note 1 Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Arthur, Henderson, A Biography, William Heinemann Ltd., London, 1938, pp. 130–2; Williams, Francis, Fifty Years' March: The Rise of the Labour Party, Odhams Press, Ltd., London, 1949, pp. 265–6.

page 16 note 2 Louis, op. cit., p. 66; The Times, op. cit., 29 May, 1917, “French Socialists and Russia”, p. 5.

page 16 note 3 Manchester Guardian, op.cit., 2 June, 1917, “The French Socialists' Decision”, p. 5; P.S.F., “Pendant la Guerre”, op.cit., p. 167; Fainsod, op.cit., pp. 134–5; “Stockholm”, op.cit., pp. xvi–xvii; Bourgin, op.cit., pp. 214–8; The Times, op.cit., 30 May, 1917, “French Socialists for Stockholm”, p. 7.

page 16 note 4 ed. Lennox, , Lady Algernon Gordon, The Diary of Lord Bertie of Thame, 1914–1918, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1924, Vol. II, pp. 130–3; Alexandre, Ribot, Letters to a Friend: Recollections of my Political Life (hereafter called Ribot, “Letters”), translated by Wilson, Herbert, Hutchinson and Co., London, n.d.[1926], p. 236; Ribot, Alexandre, Journal d'Alexandre Ribot et Correspondances inéditées, 1914–1922, Librairie Pion, Paris, 1936, pp. 136–8.

page 17 note 1 France, , Débats Parlementaires: Compte Rendu in Extenso, Chambre des Députés, Session Ordinaire de 1917, Journal Officiel du 2 juin, 1917, pp. 1323–5.

page 17 note 2 France, , Débats Parlementaires: Compte Rendu in Extenso, Senat, Session Ordinaire de 1917, Journal Officiel du 7 juin, 1917, pp. 511–5.

page 17 note 3 Ribot, “Letters”, op. cit., pp. 236–7.

page 17 note 4 Noulens, Joseph, Mon Ambassade en Russie Soviétique, 1917–1919, Librairie Pion, Paris, 1933, Vol. I, p. 58; Lennox, op.cit., Vol. II, p. 181; interview with Prof. Paul Mantoux, who was attached to the French Embassy in London.

page 17 note 5 Bourgin, op.cit., pp. 230–1.

page 18 note 1 “Stockholm”, op.cit., pp. xvii–xviii; Fainsod (op.cit., p. 136) misreports this item by saying that the Dutch-Scandinavian Committeesent out this statement.

page 18 note 2 “Stockholm”, op. cit., pp. xiv–xv and pp. xviii–xix.

page 18 note 3 The Rumanian Socialists refused to come because the German occupation authorities proposed that they should. They, therefore, believed the conference to be organised by the Germans, and instead asked that an inter-AUied Socialist conference should be held in Petrograd. Interview with Serban Voinea, former President of the Rumanian Socialist Party, and former Rumanian Minister at Berne; l'Humanité, Journal Socialiste, S.F.I.O., Paris, editor: Pierre Renaudel and later Marcel Cachin, 9 September, 1917, “Les Socialistes roumains proposentune Conférence interalliée à Petrograd”.

page 19 note 1 Fainsod, op.cit., pp. 150–1; Trotsky, , Leon, The History of the Russian Revolution, Victor Gollancz Ltd., London, 1934, pp. 341–2; Carr, op.cit., Vol. III, p. 570.

page 19 note 2 Balabanoff, Angelica, Erinnerungen und Erlebnisse (hereafter called Balabanoff, “E. und E.”), E. Laubsche Verlagsbuchhandlung G.m.b.H., Berlin, 1927, p. 138; Gankinand Fisher, op. cit., p. 615.

page 19 note 3 Gankin and Fisher, op. cit., p. 615.

page 20 note 1 Present at this meeting were: Balabanoff and Grimm for the I.S.C.; Bobrov of the Social Revolutionary Internationalists; Zinoviev, Lenin, and Kamenev of the Bolsheviks; Abramovitch of the Bund; Lapinsky of the Polish Socialist Party (Levitsa); Ryazanov, Trotsky, and Uritsky of the “Mezhraionka”; Rakovsky of the Rumanian Social-Democratic Party; and Bienstock, Martov, Martynov, and Larin of the Menshevik Internationalists.

page 20 note 2 Gankin and Fisher, op.cit., pp. 615–6; Fainsod, op.cit., pp. 155–4; “Archiv…”, op.cit., Vol. XII, pp. 365–6; Balabanoff, “E. und E.”, op.cit., pp. 148–51; Balabanoff, Angelica, My Life as a Rebel (hereafter called Balabanoff, “My Life…”), Hamish Hamilton, London, 1938, pp. 174–6.

page 21 note 1 L'Humanité, op.cit., 18 June, 1917, “Une mesure d'expulsion contre Grimm”, p. 3; Kerensky, Alexander F., The Catastrophe: Kerensky'sOwn Story of the Russian Revolution, D. Appleton and Co., New York, 1927, p. 208.

page 21 note 2 Gankin and Fisher, op.cit., pp. 616–29; Fainsod, op.cit., pp. 154–5; Balabanoff, “My Life…”, op.cit., pp. 177–9; Balabanoff, “E. und E.”, op.cit., pp. 157–6.

page 21 note 3 Fainsod (op.cit., p. 155) says Zinoviev was the third delegate; Gankin and Fisher (op. cit., p. 650 and p. 657) say Smirnov. It is unlikely that Zinoviev, a Bolshevik, adamant against the conference, was a delegate for the Petrograd Soviet.

page 23 note 1 Gankin and Fisher, op.cit., pp. 637–8; Balabanoff, “My Life…”, op.cit., pp. 182–3; Balabanoff, ”E.undE.”, op.cit., pp. 165–6; Fainsod, op cit. pp. 155–6.

page 23 note 2 Gankin and Fisher, op.cit., p. 630; Fainsod, op.cit., p. 156; “Archiv…”, op.cit., Vol. XII, pp. 372–4; Balabanoff, “My Life…”, op. cit., p. 183.

page 25 note 1 “Stockholm”, op. cit., pp. xix–xx and pp. 484–5.

page 25 note 2 ibid, p. 486.

page 25 note 3 Gankin and Fisher, op. cit., pp. 637–40.

page 25 note 4 “Stockholm”, op. cit., p. xx.

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