Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Beach Vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): An Invasive Coastal Species

  • Matthew M. Cousins (a1), Jeanne Briggs (a1), Chuck Gresham (a2), Jack Whetstone (a2) and Ted Whitwell (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Beach vitex is a salt-tolerant, perennial, invasive shrub that has naturalized in coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Since its introduction in the 1980s, this Pacific Rim native has invaded many fragile beach-dune ecosystems along the Mid-Atlantic, Southern Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico. Large-scale monocultures of beach vitex supplant native species through rapid vegetative reproduction and seed production. Fruits are capable of water-based dispersal, allowing for potential rapid range expansion in coastal areas. Ecosystem damage resulting from exclusion of native plant species by beach vitex and fears associated with potential negative effects on sea turtle nesting have served to promote the control and survey efforts presently underway in coastal areas of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author's E-mail: twhtwll@clemson.edu
References
Hide All
Beaumont L. J., Hughes L., and Poulsen M. 2005. Predicting species distributions: use of climatic parameters in BIOCLIM and its impact on predictions of species' current and future distributions. Ecol. Model 186:250269.
Cantino P. D. 1992. Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Labiatae. Pages 2737. In Harley R. M. and Reynolds T. eds. Advances in Labiatae Science. Richmond, UK Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
[CBVTF] Carolinas Beach Vitex Task Force 2009. Task Force News. http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/resource/task_force.htm. Accessed April 15, 2009.
Corner E. J. H. 1939. Notes on the systematy and distribution of Malayan phanerogams, III. Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem 10:239329.
Cousins M. M., Briggs J., Whitwell T., Whetstone J., and Gresham C. 2010. Reestablishment potential of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) following removal and control efforts. Invasive Plant Sci. Manag. In press.
Cousins M. M., Gresham C. A., Riley M. B., and Whitwell T. 2009. Beach dune sand hydrophobicity due to the presence of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L. f.). J. Agric. Food Chem 57:409415.
Cousins M., Whitwell T., and Briggs J. 2006. Control of beach vitex with postemergence herbicides. Pages 413416. in. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Southern Nursery Association Research Conference. Atlanta, GA Southern Nursery Association.
de Kok R. 2007. The genus Vitex (Lamiaceae) in New Guinea and the south Pacific islands. Kew Bull 62:587603.
de Kok R. 2008. The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea. Kew Bull 63:1740.
Dirr M. A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propagation, and Uses. Champaign, IL Stipes. 1092 p.
Dorell O. 2009. Vines assault East Coast dunes. USA Today, October 16, 2009. 8A p.
[FOCEC] Flora of China Editorial Committee 1994. Vitex . Flora China 17:2832.
Fosberg F. R. 1962. Miscellaneous notes on Hawaiian plants, 3. Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap 23:2944.
Gresham C. A. and Neal A. 2004. An Evaluation of the Invasive Potential of Beach Vitex (Vitex rotundifolia). Clemson, SC Belle W. Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University. www.beachvitex.org. Accessed: March 27, 2010.
Haïdara K., Zamir L., Shi Q., and Batist G. 2006. The flavonoid casticin has multiple mechanisms of tumor cytotoxicity action. Cancer Lett 242:180190.
Harley R. M., Atkins S., Budantsev A. L., et al. 2004. Labiatae. Pages 167275. In Kubitzki K. and Kadereit J. W. eds. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Berlin Springer.
Hu Y., Xin H. L., Zhang Q. Y., Zheng H. C., Rahman K., and Qin L. P. 2007. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemin activities of Fructus viticis effective fractions and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine 14:668674.
Kim K. D. 2005. Invasive plants on disturbed Korea sand dunes. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci 62:353364.
Lee J. S., Ihm B. S., Cho D. S., Son D. Y., and Kim J. W. 2007. Soil particle sizes and plant communities on coastal dunes. J. Plant Biol 50:475479.
Moldenke H. N. 1958. Materials toward a monograph of the genus Vitex, X. Phytologia 6:129192.
Munir A. A. 1987. A taxonomic revision of the genus Vitex L. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. J. Adel. Bot. Gard 10:3179.
[NCDACS] North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 2010. North Carolina Noxious Weeds List. http://www.agr.state.nc.us/plantindustry/plant/weed/noxweed.htm. Accessed: March 23, 2010.
Neal M. C. 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI Bishop Museum Special Publication 50. 728 p.
Olsen R. T. and Bell A. C. 2005. History of beach vitex cultivation: a potential invasive ornamental. Pages 531533. in. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Southern Nursery Association Research Conference. Atlanta, GA Southern Nursery Association.
Peel M. C., Finlayson B. L., and McMahon T. A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci 11:16331644.
Raulston J. C. 1993. [Newsletter 14, July 1986]. in. The Chronicles of the North Carolina State University Arboretum: The Collected Newsletters from the First Decade at the NCSU Arboretum. Raleigh, NC NCSU Arboretum.
Shin T. Y., Kim S. H., Lim J. P., et al. 2000. Effect of Vitex rotundifolia on immediate-type allergic reaction. J. Ethnopharmacol 72:443450.
[SPCC] State Pharmacopeia Commission of China 2000. Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China [English ed.]. Beijing Pharmacopoeia Commission of the Ministry of Public Health. 297298.
[VADACS] Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 2009. Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services Issues Permanent Beach Vitex Quarantine. http://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/news/releases-b/120409beachvitex.shtml. Accessed: March 27, 2010.
Wagner W. L., Herbst D. R., and Sohmer S. H. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Honolulu, HI Bishop Museum. 13261327.
Watanabe K., Takada Y., Matsuo N., and Nishimura H. 1995. Rotundial, a new natural mosquito repellent from the leaves of Vitex rotundifolia . Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem 59:19791980.
WorldClim 2009. Global Climate Data: Climate Database Files. http://www.worldclim.org/. Accessed: November 15, 2009.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Invasive Plant Science and Management
  • ISSN: 1939-7291
  • EISSN: 1939-747X
  • URL: /core/journals/invasive-plant-science-and-management
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 81 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 17th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.