Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Native Plant Recovery following Three Years of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) Control

  • Christopher L. Zimmerman (a1), Rebecca R. Shirer (a2) and Jeffrey D. Corbin (a3)
Abstract

Projects that aim to control invasive species often assume that a reduction of the target species will increase native species abundance. However, reports of the responses of native species following exotic species control are relatively rare. We assessed the recovery of the native community in five tidal wetland locations in which we attempted to eradicate the invasive common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.]. We tested whether 3 yr of treatment were able to eradicate Phragmites and promote recovery of the native plant community. After 3 yr of treatment, Phragmites density declined sharply in all treated stands, though it was not eradicated in any of them. Native plant cover increased significantly in treated areas, and community composition, particularly in smaller stands, converged toward that of uninvaded habitat. Thus, even within the relatively short timescale of the treatments and monitoring, significant progress was made toward achieving the goals of controlling Phragmites infestations and promoting native biodiversity. There was a trend toward greater promise for success in smaller stands than larger stands, as has been observed in other studies. A greater emphasis on monitoring whole-community responses to exotic plant control, across a range of conditions, would enhance our ability to plan and design successful management strategies.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Christopher L. Zimmerman, The Nature Conservancy, New York Division, 195 New Karner Road, Suite 201, Albany, NY 12205. (Email: czimmerman@tnc.org)
References
Hide All
Abella, SR (2014) Effectiveness of exotic plant treatments on National Park Service lands in the United States. Invasive Plant Sci Manag 7:147163
Ailstock, MS, Norman, CM, Bushmann, PJ (2001) Common reed Phragmites australis: control and effects upon biodiversity in freshwater nontidal wetlands. Restor Ecol 9:4959
Alldred, M, Baines, SB, Findlay, S (2016) Effects of invasive-plant management on nitrogen-removal services in freshwater tidal marshes. PLoS ONE 11:e0149813
Battaglin, WA, Meyer, MT, Kuivila, KM, Dietze, JE (2014) Glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA occur frequently and widely in U.S. soils, surface water, groundwater, and precipitation. J Am Water Resourc Assoc 50:275290
Carlson, ML, Kowalski, KP, Wilcox, DA (2009) Promoting species establishment in a Phragmites-dominated Great Lakes coastal wetland. Nat Areas J 29:263280
Case, EJ, Harrison, S, Cornell, HV (2016) After an invasion: understanding variation in grassland community recovery following removal of a high-impact invader. Biol Invasions 18:371380
DeMeester, JE, Richter, DD (2010) Restoring restoration: removal of the invasive plant Microstegium vimineum from a North Carolina wetland. Biol Invasions 12:781793
Denslow, JS, D’Antonio, CM (2005) After biocontrol: assessing indirect effects of insect releases. Biol Control 35:307318
Farnsworth, EJ, Meyerson, LA (1999) Species composition and inter-annual dynamics of a freshwater tidal plant community following removal of the invasive grass, Phragmites australis. Biol Invasions 1:115127
Gagnon, LN, Gauthier, G, Lavoie, C (2015) Effect of the invasive common reed on the abundance, richness and diversity of birds in freshwater marshes. Anim Conserv 18:3243
González, E, Sher, AA, Anderson, RM, Bay, RF, Bean, DW, Bissonnete, GJ, Bourgeois, B, Cooper, DJ, Dohrenwend, K, Eichhorst, KD, El Waer, H, Kennard, DK, Harms-Weissinger, R, Henry, AL, Makarick, LJ, Ostoja, SM, Reynolds, LV, Robinson, WW, Shafroth, PB (2017) Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites. Ecol Appl 27:17891804
Hazelton, ELG, Mozdzer, TJ, Burdick, DM, Kettenring, KM, Whigham, DF (2014) Phragmites australis management in the United States: 40 years of methods and outcomes. AoB Plants 6:plu001
Holl, KD (2002) Long-term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. J Appl Ecol 39:960970
Kettenring, KM, Adams, CR (2011) Lessons learned from invasive plant control experiments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Appl Ecol 48:970979
Kincaid, TM, Olsen, AR (2013) spsurvey: Spatial Survey Design and Analysis. R Package v. 2.6. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/spsurvey/index.html. Accessed: May 1, 2013
Lavoie, C (2010) Should we care about purple loosestrife? The history of an invasive plant in North America. Biol Invasions 12:19671999
Lombard, KB, Tomassi, D, Ebersole, J (2012) Long-term management of an invasive plant: lessons from seven years of Phragmites australis control. Northeast Nat 19:181193
Luken, JO, Kuddes, LM, Tholemeier, TC (1997) Response of understory species to gap formation and soil disturbance in Lonicera maackii thickets. Restor Ecol 5:229235
Lyons, JE, Runge, MC, Laskowski, HP, Kendall, WL (2008) Monitoring in the context of structured decision-making and adaptive management. J Wildl Manage 72:16831692
Marks, M, Lapin, B, Randall, J (1994) Phragmites australis (P. communis): threats, management and monitoring. Nat Areas J 14:285294
Martin, LJ, Blossey, B (2013) The runaway weed: costs and failures of Phragmites australis management in the USA. Estuaries Coast 36:626632
Matthews, JW, Endress, AG (2010) Rate of succession in restored wetlands and the role of site context. Appl Veg Sci 13:346355
Matthews, JW, Spyreas, G (2010) Convergence and divergence in plant community trajectories as a framework for monitoring wetland restoration progress. J Appl Ecol 47:11281136
McDonald, T, Gann, G, Jonson, J, Dixon, K (2016) International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration—Including Principles and Key Concepts. Washington, DC: Society for Ecological Restoration
Myers, R, Heffernan, K, Clarke, P, Field, D (2009) Management and education to control Phragmites on the seaside of Virginia’s Eastern Shore. Final Report for Year Six of the Seaside Heritage Program Submitted to USDC National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage Technical Report no. 09-05
Nichols, JD, Williams, BK (2006) Monitoring for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 21:668673
Ogden, JAE, Rejmánek, M (2005) Recovery of native plant communities after the control of a dominant invasive plant species, Foeniculum vulgare: implications for management. Biol Conserv 125:427439
Quirion, B, Simek, Z, Dávalos, A, Blossey, B (2018) Management of invasive Phragmites australis in the Adirondacks: a cautionary tale about prospects of eradication. Biol Invasions 20:5973
Reid, AM, Morin, L, Downey, PO, French, K, Virtue, JG (2009) Does invasive plant management aid the restoration of natural ecosystems? Biol Conserv 142:23422349
Rejmánek, M, Pitcairn, M (2002) When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? Pages 249253 in Veitch CR, Clout MN, eds. Turning the Tide: The Eradication of Invasive Species. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN
Rinella, MJ, Maxwell, BD, Fay, PK, Weaver, T, Sheley, RL (2009) Control effort exacerbates invasive-species problem. Ecol Appl 19:155162
Ruiz-Jaen, MC, Mitchell Aide, T (2005) Restoration success: how is it being measured? Restor Ecol 13:569577
Simberloff, D (2012) Risks of biological control for conservation purposes. BioControl 57:263276
Taylor, CM, Hastings, A (2004) Finding optimal control strategies for invasive species: a density-structured model for Spartina alterniflora. J Appl Ecol 41:10491057
Thomas, MB, Reid, AM (2007) Are exotic natural enemies an effective way of controlling invasive plants? Trends Ecol Evol 22:447453
Turner, PJ, Scott, JK, Spafford, H (2008) The ecological barriers to the recovery of bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce) infested sites: impacts on vegetation and the potential increase in other exotic species. Austral Ecol 33:713722
Warren, RS, Fell, PE, Grimsby, JL, Buck, EL, Rilling, GC, Fertik, RA (2001) Rates, patterns, and impacts of Phragmites australis expansion and effects of experimental Phragmites control on vegetation, macroinvertebrates, and fish within tidelands of the lower Connecticut River. Estuaries 24:90107
Wilcox, KL, Petrie, SA, Maynard, LA, Meyer, SW (2003) Historical distribution and abundance of Phragmites australis at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario. J Great Lakes Res 29:664680
Winogrond, HG, Kiviat, E (1997) Invasion of Phragmites australis in the tidal marshes of the Hudson River. Section VI in Nieder WC and Waldman JR, eds. Final Reports of the Tibor T. Polgar Fellowship Program, 1996. Hudson Valley, NY: Hudson River Foundation
Zavaleta, ES, Hobbs, RJ, Mooney, HA (2001) Viewing invasive species removal in a whole-ecosystem context. Trends Ecol Evol 16:454459
Zimmerman, CL, Shirer, R, Corbin, JD (2018) Native plant recovery following three years of common reed (Phragmites australis) control. Dryad Digital Repository. doi: 10.5061/dryad.63227hg. Accessed: September 28, 2018
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Invasive Plant Science and Management
  • ISSN: 1939-7291
  • EISSN: 1939-747X
  • URL: /core/journals/invasive-plant-science-and-management
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed