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Daggers and Swords in Western Asia: A Study from Prehistoric Times to 600 B.C.

  • Rachel Maxwell-Hyslop
Extract

‘During the purification of Delos by Athens in this war all the graves in the island were taken up, and it was found that above half their inmates were Carians: they were identified by the fashion of the arms buried with them, and by the method of interment, which was the same as the Carians still follow? (Thucydides 1. 8, tr. Crawley.)

In the Near East the term ‘Bronze Age’ still represents a well-defined stage in the development of man's material civilization and can be used with advantage in conjunction with a chronological framework based on Historical evidence. In Mesopotamia, for example, the term ‘prehistoric’ can be confined to a period earlier than the beginning of the third millennium B.C., and the ‘Bronze Age’, which in Europe denotes a period which is entirely ‘prehistoric’ in the Near East signifies a stage whose efflorescence, varying in different regions, can be historically dated with fair accuracy. Within this period we can isolate the various archaeological remains of different civilizations by classifying them according to their material (pottery, bronzes, ivories, faience, &c.). Then for purposes of detailed study we can classify the objects within each of these main branches into groups (though here the division does not invariably depend on material), and a ‘grammar’ of one group can be described as the definition by their forms of the various classes in the general group, giving a series of dated or datable instances.

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page 1 note 1 For a discussion of the misleading results arising from the misuse of this term in European premstory see Daniel, Glyn, The Three Ages (Cambridge, 1943).

page 1 note 2 See Archaeological Ages as Technological Stages (Royal Anthropological Institute, 1944).

page 1 note 3 This has not been treated in detail, reference being given to Gjerstad's classification.

page 3 note 1 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 4, 2.

page 3 note 2 For a general discussion of the distribution of these daggers see Childe, , Dawn, 216 ff., Fig. 106, and Castillo, , La Cultura del Vaso Campaniforme, pls. v, 7, 8 ; LXXVII, 4, 5; XCVII, 3; CXII, 1; CXVII, 7; CXXIII, 7. See also Dechelette, , Manuel, 11 Fig. 57, 4 ; Piggott, , Early Bronze Age in Wessext 56 and note 1; Evans, Ancient Bronze Implements of Great Britain, Fig. 277. Some of the above examples have slight raised flanges on each side of the tang and the blade is triangular-shaped; others, especially some of the Spanish and all of the British examples, resemble more closely the western Asiatic type.

page 3 note 3 See introduction to Type 13.

page 4 note 1 Smith, , Early History of Assyria, 57 ff.

page 4 note 2 Frankfort, Archaeology and the Sumerian Problem.

page 4 note 3 Jessen, A. A. and Degen-Kolvalevski, B. E., Iz Istorii Drevney Metallurgii Kavkaza (Moscow/Leningrad, 1935). English summary in Georgica, 1937, nos. 4 and 5, pp. 312 ff.

page 4 note 4 Hančar, , Urgeschichte Kaukasiens, Taf. XXXVIII, 5, 6, 7 .

page 4 note 5 Ibid., Taf. LII, 3.

page 4 note 6 Ibid., Abb. 26, 1.

page 4 note 7 Man, XLII, NO. 74.

page 5 note 1 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 5, 1.

page 5 noet 2 Mr. Stewart has found examples at Vounous dating from E.C. I-III and thinks the earliest of these examples should not be dated before 2700 B.C. He writes: ‘A large percentage had two extra rivets in position by the shoulder, but not touching the metal. … Where only the tang remains it is safe to assume the decay of the shoulder rivets, and I do not believe in the existence of a tang plus one rivet class as a separate entity? This class of Cypriot dagger has been mentioned in the catalogue of Type 2, and owing to the numerous examples which have been found where no signs of the shoulder rivets remain it seems unlikely that in every case the extra shoulder rivets would have decayed.

page 6 note 1 Schmidt, E., Die Kurgane der Stanica Konstantinovskaja (E.S.A. IV, p. 20).

page 7 note 1 Petrie, , Tools and Weapons, pl. XXXIII, 9, 10 .

page 8 note 1 Pendlebury, , Crete, pl. XI, 3, d.

page 11 note 1 Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, VI, Taf. 23, Monte Bradoni Cave.

page 11 note 2 Peet, The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy, Figs. 136 and 139; Hawkes, Prehistoric Foundations, Fig. 15, 3.

page 11 note 3 Przeworski, , Die Metallindustrie, 50 .

page 12 note 1 M. M. Ivanscenko, Beiträge zur Vorgeschichte Abchasiens (E.S.A. VII, Abb. 22), and Tallgren, Sur les monuments mégalithiques du Caucase occidental (E.S.A. IX); cf. Kuftin, , Trialeti, I, pl. CV.

page 12 note 2 Antiquity, XVII, 183 , and Man, XLIV, No. 30.

page 14 note 1 The wide central flange is found on a tanged dagger from the Grotte du Castellet, near Aries, and a flint weapon from the same site shows the same feature. See Castillo, , La Cultura del Vaso Campaniforme, pls. XCVI, 7 and XCVII, 3 .

page 14 note 2 See Hančar, , Urgeschickte Kaukasiens, Abb. 30 . Dagger blade from Machosevskaja (Kuban-Terek), also E.S.A. IX. 51 , Abb. 1, d. Kalakent.

page 14 note 3 Der Grottenfund von Ordu (A.Or. VII. 390 ff. and VIII. 49 ff.).

page 15 note 1 Winckler, , Vorläufige Nachrichten über die Ausgrabungen in Boghas-Koi im Sommer 1907 (M.D.O.G. XXXV. 1, 1907, 7 f.).

page 15 note 2 Bittel, , Neue Funde vorklassischer Zeit aus Kleinasien (J.D.A.I. XLIX, 1934).

page 15 note 3 Nioradze, G., Der Verwahrfund von Kvemo-Sasi-rithi (E.S.A. VII).

page 15 note 4 Przeworski, , Die Metallindustrie, pl. III, 5, 6 .

page 18 note 1 Petrie, , Tools and Weapons, pl, XXXIV, Nos. 37, 38, 48, 50 .

page 18 note 2 Pendlebury, , Crete, pl. XI, 3 ; Xanthoudides, , Vaulted Tombs of the Messara, pl. xxxix, 1435 (M.M.I), pl. LV, 1870 .

page 18 note 3 Seager, Mochlos, Fig. 45, iii o.

page 18 note 4 Blegen, Prosymna, Fig. 603.

page 18 note 5 Blegen, Zigouries, pl. XX, 25.

page 18 note 6 Petrie, op. cit., pl. XXXV, 73.

page 18 note 7 Blegen, Prosymna, Figs. 420, 421.

page 18 note 8 Childe, Dawn, Fig. 116.

page 18 note 9 Peet, Italy, Fig. 142.

page 18 note 10 Pericot, , La Civilización Megalítica Catalana, pl. XII, 1 .

page 18 note 11 Childe, , Dawn, 282 .

page 18 note 12 Ibid., 109.

page 18 note 13 Danube, 190, mentions round-heeled daggers in Beaker graves from Bohemia and Moravia and Heides-heimer near Mainz.

page 18 note 14 Ibid., 263.

page 18 note 15 Hawkes, Prehistoric Foundations, Fig. 25, c; peet, op. cit., Fig. 166.

page 18 note 16 Childe, Dawn, Fig. 130.

page 18 note 17 Ibid., Fig. 140; Philippe, Cinq années de fouilles à Fort Harrouardy pl. v; see Piggott, , Early Bronze Age in Wessex, 64 ff., for a discussion of the Breton types.

page 18 note 18 Piggott, op. cit.

page 19 note 1 Nioradze, G., Der Verwahrfund von Kvemo-Sasirethi (E.S.A. VII, Abb. 8). Unstratified.

page 19 note 1 At Cambykskaja, Hančar, , Urgeschichte Kaukasiens, Abb. 23, 7, Middle Kuban period, dated by Tallgren 1500-1100, Schmidt 2300-1600, Childe 2100-1500 Tallgren, B.C., Études sur le Caucase du Nord (E.S.A. IV), mentions 8 other examples.

page 19 note 3 See Antiquity, xvi, 19, 1942 ; J. B. Ward-Perkins, Problems of Maltese Prehistory, Note on the daggers by K. R. Maxwell-Hyslop. The date of the Bronze Age level at Hal Tarxien awaits the further study of the pottery.

page 19 note 4 Bittel, Mitt. No. 77, 1939, Abb. 41.

page 20 note 1 Seager, Mochlosy Fig. 45, xiii m; also Xanthoudides, , Vaulted Tombs, pl. XXIV, 1175, 1178 ; Pendlebury, , Crete, pl. XI, 3 .

page 20 note 2 Petrie, Tools and Weapons, pl. XXXV, D. 88.

page 22 note 1 Since writing this I have been able to consult Dunand's, Fouilles de Byblos (1940), where a copper example was found in the prehistoric cemetery (see Catalogue of Type 20).

page 24 note 1 Wolf, Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 4, 6.

page 25 note 1 Hall, Greece, Fig. 102.

page 26 note 1 Wolf, Die Bewaffnungt, Taf. 4,8; Petrie, Diospolis Parva. The Cemeteries of Abadiyeh and Hu, pl. XXXII, 4.

page 27 note 1 Tell Ajjūl, Petrie, II, pl. XIV, 71; pl. XIX, 10, pl. XVIII, 7; IV, pl. XLI, 110-11, 115, 118. Gezer, Macalister, III, pl. LXI, 23-4. Megiddo, GUY, pl. 118. 2. Jericho, Garstang, A.A.A. XIX (3-4), pl. XXXVII, 1-2.

page 27 note 2 Dunand, Byblos, pl. XCIV, 3872.

page 29 note 1 For detail of method of hafting, see Schaeffer, Missions en Chypre, Fig. 16. For another suggestion see Gardner, G. B., Le Problème de la garde de l'èpèe cypriote de l'Âge de Bronze (B.S.P.F. 12, 1937).

page 30 note 1 Childe, Dawn, Figs. 23, 26. See also an example from Thermi IV, Lamb, , Thermi, pl. XLVII, 32·2 without tang. Cf. Type 14.

page 30 note 2 Mecquenem, De, M.D.P. XXV, Fig. 25. 1.

page 30 note 3 Cf. Gjerstad, , Studies, 234, Type 2 a.

page 32 note 1 Gjerstad, , S.C.E. 1, pl. CXLII, L. 302 , A. 38, E.C. III.

page 32 note 2 Schaeffer, , Missions en Chypre, 30 ff., discusses the importance of the position of the blades in the graves. At Vounous many blades were found lying beside the body but pointing upwards to the head, a position which would be more natural for a lance than a dagger.

page 32 note 3 Schaeffer, op. cit., Fig. 16, 3.

page 32 note 4 Goldman, , A.J.A. XLII. 1, Fig. 14.

page 32 note 5 Heine-Geldern, R., New Light on the Aryan Migration to India (B.I.A.A. V. 1 , Fig. 9, 3rd from left), and Rostovtzeff, , J.E.A., VI, 1920, pl. III, 10.

page 32 note 6 Contenau, Giyan, pl. 32, T. 112, 3; Schmidt, Hissar, pl. L, H. 3582. See McCowan, , Comparative Stratigraphy of Early Irany p. 53 .

page 32 note 7 The idea of the stop-ridge is also common on spearheads without hooked tangs, both on the poker butt form and those with leaf-shaped blades. Cf. Woolley, Royal Tombs, pl. 227, and Hittite Burial Customs (A.A.A. VI, pl. XIX; the fragmentary example, 4, has stop-ridge and hooked tang, cf. Survey of Persian Arty pl. 54 F); Tallgren, , Études sur les monuments du Caucase (E.S.A. IX, Fig. 21, 8). Another example with wider blade is known from S. Russia, R. Heine-Geldern, op. cit., Fig. 10. For a discussion of the distribution of these spearheads see Childe, Axes from Maikop and Caucasian Metallurgy (A.A.A. XXIII), and also Frankfort, Archaeology and the Sumerian Problem.

page 34 note 1 The weapons worn by the curious female figures on the fragment of a Mycenaean vase from Ras Shamra have exaggerated crescentic-shaped pommels, and from the shape of the sheath one may infer the existence of large horned guards: Syria, xii, 1931, pl. III. A similar weapon with crescentic-shaped pommel and wide shoulders is found among the Cretan pictographic signs which belong to M.M. II, and another with round pommel is depicted on the stele from the 5th Shaft-grave: Remouchamps, Griechische Dolch- und Schwertformen, Abb. 16 and 17.

page 34 noet 2 Remouchamps, op. cit., Abb. 19.

page 34 note 3 Wace, , Archaeologia, LXXXII, pl. VII, No. 49, from Tomb 518 at Mycenae. See also Persson, Dendra, pl. XXI.

page 34 note 4 Hutchinson, R. W., Iraq, 1. 2, p. 169 .

paeg 34 note 5 Xanthoudides, , Eph. Arch., 1906 . Cited by Hutchinson, loc. cit.

page 34 note 6 Evans, , Palace of Minos, 1. 195 and Fig. 142c, and Halbherr, , Monumenti Antichi dell' Accademia dei Lincei, XIX ; also cited by Hutchinson, loc. cit.

page 34 note 7 And Asia Minor. See addendum to Type 31.

page 34 note 8 Citing B.S.A. X, Supp. Papers, pl. XXV.

page 36 note 1 Childe, Bronze Age, Fig. 8, 6.

page 36 note 2 And Asia Minor. See addendum to Type 32 d.

page 36 note 3 Hančar, , Kaukasus-Luristan, E.S.A. IX, p. 51, c.

page 36 note 4 Zakharoff, , Études sur l'archéologie de l'Asie Mineure et du Caucase (R.H.A. I, pls. X, 7; XI, 1).

page 36 note 5 Hančar, op. cit. 51, e and f.

page 36 note 6 Zakharoff, op. cit., pls. XI, 6 and 7.

page 36 note 7 Ibid., pls. XI, 9.

page 36 note 8 Chantre, , Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase, 11, Fig. 124.

page 38 note 1 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, pp. 43 f., Taf. 13, 8. For another example bearing the name of a Hyksos king see ibid. 71, footnote 1a.

page 39 note 1 Wolf, op. cit. 71, Taf. 13, 9.

page 39 note 2 Ibid. Taf. 5, 4 and 5; see also Petrie, , Tools and Weapons, pl. XXXIV, 52 .

page 39 note 3 Wolf, op. cit. 71, footnote 1.

page 39 note 4 Carter-Newberry, The Tomb of Thoutmôsis IV, pls. X and XI.

page 39 note 5 Bonnet, , Die Waffen, Abb. 25 a; Archaeologia, LIII, pl. iv, 4. For a discussion of this type of blade, see Bonnet, op. cit. 63 f, Abb. 23, c, d, and Abb. 25 b. Examples are also known from Gaza, Petrie, , Gaza, III, pl. IX, 26 , and Shamra, Ras, Schaeffer, , Syria, XIII, 1932, pl. X, 1 .

page 39 note 6 Bonnet, , Die Waffen, Abb. 24 e.

page 39 note 7 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 13, 12; Bonnet, op. cit., Abb. 31.

page 40 note 1 Hutchinson, op. cit., p. 34, note 4.

page 41 note 1 With the exception of the two curved swords from Norre, Ostergotland, and Kondstorp, Schonen. Forssander, , Der Ostkand Norden während der ältesten Metallzeit Europas (Lund, 1936), 198, Taf. XLI, XLII. Dated as end of Aunjetitz.

page 41 note 2 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 7, 2.

page 41 note 3 Naville, and Griffith, , Tell el Yahûdîyeh, pl. XIX, 30 .

page 41 note 4 See Catalogue.

page 42 note 1 Wolf, op. cit., Taf. 7, 6-11.

page 42 note 2 Bonnet, , Die Waffen, Abb. 42 .

page 42 note 3 Contenau, , Manuel, 1, Fig. 324.

page 42 note 4 Zervos, , L'Art de la Mésopotamie, p. 111 .

page 42 note 5 Bonnet, , Die Waffen, Abb. 41 . See Langdon, Semitic Mythology, Figs. 84 and 86, for the scimitar and curved sword on Assyrian cylinder seals.

page 42 note 6 Budge, Assyrian Sculptures, pl. 1.

page 44 note 1 Zakharoff, , R.H.A. 1 pl. XII, 3 and pl. XI, 2.

page 44 note 2 See Catalogue.

page 45 note 3 Citing Hutchinson, , Iraq, 1. 165 ; Xanthoudides, , Eph. Arch. 1904, 29, Fig. 7 and Evans, Shaft Graves, Fig. 22.

page 45 note 4 Benton, , B.S.A. XXIX, 114, Fig. 1.

page 45 note 5 Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, VI, Taf. 29, f.

page 45 note 1 Whether India can be included in this list if these tribes contained people of Indo-European speech, or whether the movement was caused by a second Aryan migration similar to that which must have occurred between 1500 and 1450 B.C. or earlier, cannot be discussed here, but see Heine-Geldern, R., New Light on the Aryan Migration to India (B.A.I.I.A. V, 1), whose arguments are partly based on a second millennium date for Hissar III. Swords with flanged hilts found in India are discussed by Piggott, , Prehistoric Copper Hoards in the Ganges Basin (Antiquity, XVIII. 173–82).

page 47 note 1 Karo, Schachtgräbe von Mykenai, pls. LXXXI, LXXXII, No. 725.

page 47 note 2 Hall, Greece, Fig. 257

page 47 note 3 Childe, Bronze Age, Fig. 8, 8.

page 47 note 4 Godard thinks that some of the Luristan weapons can be ascribed to the Kassites, but there is no convincing evidence that the Kassites were ever competent metallurgists.

page 49 note 1 Hutchinson, , Iraq, 1. 2, 1934 . See also introduction to Type 44.

page 49 note 2 Hutchinson, op. cit., pl. XXII, 3. Morgan, De, La Préhistoire orientale, III, Fig. 251, 1.

page 50 note 1 Nioradze, G., Der Verwahrfund von Kvemo-Sasirithi (E.S.A. VII, Abb. 8).

page 50 note 2 Hančar, , Kaukasus-Luristan (E.S.A. IX, Abb. 2.).

page 50 note 3 Ibid.

page 51 note 1 B.M.Q. XII. 2, 36 .

page 51 note 2 E.S.A. IX. 76 ff.; see also Kuftin, Trialeti, Fig. 59, for an example similar to the Chagula Derre weapon.

page 52 note 1 Hall, Greece, Fig. 331, d, e; Remouchamps, , Griechische Dolch- und Schwertformen, Abb. 25 .

page 52 note 2 Hall, op. cit., p. 256, Note 1 and Fig. 331 d; Remouchamps, op. cit., p. 17, discusses the development of this type in the Aegean.

page 52 note 3 Other early European short swords with blades approximating more to that of Type 47 are known from Denmark, N. Germany, and Upper Italy, and belong to the period 1600-1400 B.C. Cf. Uenze, Otto, Die frühbronzezeitlichen triangularen Vollgriffdolche, pp. 72 ff.

page 53 note 1 B.M.Br.G., Fig. 169.

page 53 note 2 Hubert, H., De quelques objets de bronze trouvés à Byblos (Byria, VI, 1934, pl. III); Petrie, , Tools and Weapons, pl. XXXVI, 166 .

page 53 note 3 Peet, Italy, Fig. 169; Childe, , Danube, pl. 1, A.6 (Swiss).

page 54 note 1 Phokis. See Montelius, , Grèce préclassique, I, pl. 14, 4 . Vrokastro, Hall, , University of Pennsylvania Anthropological Publications, 3, pl. 21 F, G.

page 54 note 2 Norcia, , Reallexikon der Vorgeschichtef VI, Taf. 29, f; Syracuse, Remouchamps, , Griechische Dolch- und Schwertformen, Abb. 45 b; Veji, Remouchamps, op. cit., Abb. 41a; Terni, , Notizie degli Scavi, 1907, 626, 636 . Perugia, Rome, Montelius, , Civilisation primitive en Italie, 2, Pl. 252, 12, pl. 355, 17a; Cumae, , Monumenti Antichi, XXII, Fig. 27, 1 .

page 54 note 3 Myres, , Cat. Cesnola Collection, 4726 and 4554 .

page 54 note 4 Chantre, , Recherches archéologiques dans le Caucase, 1, pl. IV.

page 54 mnote 5 Persson, , Dendra, Fig. 20, 3, 5 .

page 54 note 6 Remouchamps, , Griechische Dolch- und Schwertformen, Abb. 2325 . See also Childe, The Minoan Influences on the Danubian Bronze Age, Fig. 2, in Essays in Aegean Archaeology? presented to Sir Arthur Evanst where the Ialysos sword (dated to c. 1300 B.C.), is compared to a sword from Hammer, Nuremberg. I am indebted to Prof. Stuart Piggott for this reference.

page 55 note 1 See Hall, Greece, Fig. 332, footnote i, and Watzinger, Tell el Mutesellimi 11. 45, footnote 1 for Aegean distribution and references; Remouchamps, , Griechische Dolch- und Schwertformen, Abb. 31–7. Burn, A. R., Minoans, Philistines and Greeks, 41 , thinks these swords were carried south from Europe by bands of marauding warriors who may have taken part in the Phrygian invasion of Asia Minor; Hall, op. cit., 256, associates this type with the Achaeans; Homer, Iliad, XIII. 576-7, mentions the slashing swords which come from Thrace.

page 55 note 2 Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Taf. 15 .

page 55 note 3 An example from Aryanos, CHILDE, Danube, pl. II, c. 3 (dated to Danubian period V, c. 1400-1200 B.C.) can be compared with the Cypriot example from Kurion; both have flanged hilts, round shoulders, and rivets to keep the inlay in place.

page 56 note 1 Przeworski, , Die Metallindustrie, Taf. VI, 7 .

page 57 note 1 Bittel, Boǧazköy (Die Kleinfunde der Grabungen 1906-12. I. Funde hetkitischer Zeit), from Level I IIa; H. Schmidt, 6059-64, 7900; Von der Osten, O.I.P. 29, Fig. 261, c. 1419, d. 2876. Körte, , Gordion (Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung im 1900), 174 . See also Introduction to Type 25 for Palestinian examples dating from the Hyksos period.

page 57 note 2 Zakharoff, , R.H.A. 1, pl. 12, 46 ; Przeworski, , Die Metallindustrie, Taf. XXII, 3 ; Morgan, De, Mission scientifique au Caucase, II, Fig. 36.

page 57 note 3 Hall, , Greece, p. 229 , describes this weapon as a Shardana sword, Burn, , Minoans, Philistines and Greeks, 120 , calls it ‘a characteristically “Homeric” weapon, the cut and thrust leaf-shaped sword’, yet swords of this type have protruding ‘horns’ on the ricasso (see Introduction to Type 46). Lorimer, H. L., Defensive Armour in Homer (A.A.A. XV, 3-4, p. 94), describes it as a ‘narrow-rapier with well-marked mianb of the Shaft-grave type’, yet the blade is certainly leaf-shaped and not straight-sided as it should be if the weapon belonged to the Shaft-grave series.

page 58 note 1 Childe, Danube, pl. II, Type Co and Cl.

page 58 note 2 Zakharoff, , Études sur l'archéologie de l'Asie Mineure et du Caucase (R.H.A. I).

page 58 note 3 Perrot and Chipiez, II, Fig. 53.

page 59 note 1 Zakharoff, A., R.H.A. I, p. 129 and pl. v, 2.

page 59 note 2 Müller, W. M., Egyptological Researches, 11, pl. x, 1, pl. VI; Hall, Greece, Fig. 260.

page 59 note 3 Hančar, , Kaukasus-Luristan (E.S.A. IX), Abb. 1, a.

page 59 note 4 Hančar, op. cit., Abb. 19, b and c.

page 59 note 5 Morgan, De, La Préhistoire orientale, 111, Fig. 249.

page 59 note 6 Hall, op. cit., Fig. 267, and Childe, The Aryans, Fig. 25, 7.

page 59 note 7 See catalogue.

page 59 note 8 Wolf, op. cit., Taf. 5, 2.

page 60 note 1 Hall, Greece, Fig. 267.

page 60 note 2 Bonnet, , Die Waffen, Abb. 20c; Wolf, , Die Bewaffnung, Abb. 20 (right-hand example).

page 60 note 3 Newberry, , Berti Hasan, 1, Pl. 47; Wreszinsky, , Atlas zur altägyptischen Kulturgeschichtet 11, 8 .

page 60 note 4 Wolf, op. cit., Taf. 5, 1.

page 60 note 5 Wolf, op. cit., Taf. 5, 3.

page 60 note 6 Petrie, , Tools and Weapons, pl. XXXIII, 26 .

page 60 note 7 It is suggestive that the meaning of paṭaru is ‘to slit’ or ‘peel’, which may imply that in Assyria the dagger was originally used as a tool and that its use as a weapon of war was a later development. Bezold's translation of šibbu as a girdle or loin-cloth worn round the hips is not correct as daggers were always worn with the sheath stuck through the belt at the waist. On sikkat karri, ‘pommel’, see Meissner, B., Beiträge zum assyrischen Wörterbuch, 1, p. 61, no. 60.

page 61 note 1 Contenau, , Manuely III, p. 1247 .

page 61 note 2 Gurney, O., Babylonian Prophylactic Figures and their Rituals (A.A.A. XXII, Nos. 1-2). See Langdon, , Semitic Mythology, 138 , for the seven deified weapons in the Irra myth. Also Gadd, , The Assyrian Sculptures, 51 , for the identification of the figures described in the texts with those portrayed on the reliefs.

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