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Williamite peace tactics, 1690-1

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 July 2016

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William III’s policy for ending the Irish war went through many changes during the fifteen months between the battle of the Boyne and the surrender of Limerick. With the varying fortunes of the war it oscillated between unconditional surrender and the securing of a negotiated settlement by the grant of liberal terms. William regarded the Irish war as an exasperating sideshow which diverted his forces from the real scene of action in the Netherlands, where he and his allies were hard put to it to withstand the pressure of the French. From the beginning of his reign his policy had been to induce the Irish Jacobites to surrender upon terms, and it was with the greatest reluctance that he decided in the spring of 1690 that he must himself go to Ireland and fight the matter out.

Copyright © Irish Historical Studies Publications Ltd 1953

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1 William to elector of Bavaria, 14 Mar. 1690 ( Japikse, N., Correspon-dentie van Willem en Bentinck, 3. 158).Google Scholar

In further references this work is cited as Correspondence.

2 H.M.C, rep. 12, app. vi, p. 165.

3 Various arguments are set out in pamphlets published in 1689, A declaration for Ireland or no declaration!Reasons for his majesty issuing a general pardon to the rebels of Ireland.

4 B.M., Add. MS 19,670, f. 2.

5 Southwell to Nottingham, 4 July 1690 (B.M., Add. MS 38,146, ff. 98–9).

6 Same to same, 6 July 1690 (ibid., f. 101).

7 Southwell papers in T.C.D., MS I. 6. 11, p. 57.

8 Southwell to Nottingham, 6 July 1690 (H.M.C. Finch MSS, ii. 343).

9 London Gazette, 10 July 1690.

10 Story, G.W., A continuation of the impartial history of the wars of Ireland, p. 27.Google Scholar

11 Burnet, G., History of his own time (1823 ed.), 4. 99.Google Scholar

12 Gilbert, J.T., A Jacobite narrative, pp. 105–6.Google Scholar

13 Macariae excidium (ed. J. C. O’Callaghan, 1850), p. 71.

14 Cob ray may be a corruption of Cappaghroe, which in 1631 was in the possession of John O’Grady ( Frost, J., History and topography of the county of Clare, p. 317).Google Scholar

15 T.C.D., MS K. 5. ι (Clarke corr., no. 78).

16 D’AIbeville to Tyrconnell, 27 Oct. 1690 (H.M.C. Finch MSS, ii. 478).

17 Bentinck to Ginkel, 25 Oct. 1690 (Correspondence, iii. 188).

18 Bentinck to Ginkel, 15 Nov- 1690 (ibid., p. 191).

19 William to Ginkel, 4 Dec. 1690 (ibid., p. 192).

20 Ginkel to William, 9 Dec. 1690 (ibid., p. 194).

21 Bentinck to Ginkel, 13 Dec. 1690 (ibid., p. 196).

22 Same to same, 20 Dec. 1690 (ibid., pp. 197–8).

23 Same to same, 24 Dec. 1690 (ibid., p. 199).

24 Same to same, 13 Jan. 1691 (ibid., pp. 201–2).

25 Nêgoc. d’Avaux en Irl., pp. 738–9.

26 Macariae excidium, pp. 58 and 102–4.

27 Story, An impartial history, pp. 94–5.

28 Mr T. to his brother, 13 Dec. 1690 (T.C.D., MS I. 6. 10, p. 131).

29 Sarsfield to Mountcashel, 24 Feb. 1691, quoted from Ministère de la guerre, Α’ 1066 (Irlande vi), no. 187, by H. Mangan in Irish Sword, i, 24.

30 Ginkel to Coningsby, 13 Jan. 1691 (H.M.C., rep. 4, app. p. 318).

31 Ginkel to Coningsby, 2 July 1691 (ibid., p. 320); Israel Fielding to George Clarke, 4 July 1691 (Clarke corr., no. 689).

32 Dublin Intelligence, 3–10 Feb. 1691.

33 Coningsby to Nottingham, 17 Feb. 1691 (Cal. S.P. dom., l609–I, p. 205).

34 Account of affairs in Limerick by Mr Floyd, Feb. 1691 (T.CD, MS I. 6. 9, P. 98).

35 Bentinck to Ginkel, 11/21 May 1691 (Correspondentie, p. 236).

36 Porter to Sidney, 29 May 1691 (Cal. S.P. dorn., I690–1, pp. 393–4).

37 Lords justices to Nottingham, 29 May 1691 (ibid., pp. 394-5); the draft is with the letter (ibid., pp. 395–6).

38 Bentinck to Ginkel, 8/18 June 1691 (Correspondence, p. 241).

39 This decision was later referred to in a letter from the lords justices to Ginkel, 13 July 1691 (Clarke corr. no. 735).

40 Bibliotheca Lindesiana contains some earlier drafts of this proclamation, dated 22 June 1691. The only printed copy of the version of July 7 is cited as having been in P.R.O.I. (Steele, Tudor and Stuart proclam., ii. 151); the entry notes that the date was inserted in ms. It also cites a ms copy in T.C.D. This is MS I. 6. 10, pp. 149–51; it tallies with the catalogue summary of the P.R.O.I. copy. There is a French version which corresponds exactly with the T.C.D. copy (Archives nationales, fonds A I, mlxxx. 180).

41 Ginkel to Coningsby, 8 July 1691 ; same to lords justices, 11 July 1691 (H.M.C, rep. 4, app. pp. 321–2). It was presumably due to Ginkel that the Charles II clause reappeared in drafting the articles of Limerick.

42 Notes on the back of the T.C.D. copy of the proclamation.

43 Blathwayt to Clarke 30 July 1691 (Clarke corr., no. 798).

44 Lords justices to Ginkel, 9 July 1691 (ibid., no. 717).

45 A particular relation of the surrender of Galway, 1691. This is the Williamite official version, ‘ published by authority ’

46 William to Ginkel, 1/11 May 1691 (Correspondentie, p. 235).

47 Ginkel to Coningsby, 24 July 1691 (H.M.C, rep. 4, app. p. 322).

48 Ginkel to William, 22 July and 8 Aug. 1691 (Cal. S.P. dorn., I690–1, pp. 455 and 475).

49 Ginkel to Blathwayt, 6/16 Aug. 1697 (N.L.I., Annesley MSS, xxvii. 153).

50 Bentinck to Ginkel, 3/13 Aug. 1691 (Correspondentie, p. 249). The controversy about the Galway articles continued for several years, and was not settled until 1697 when William issued orders restricting the benefit of the articles to those who were actually in the town at the time of its surrender. Copy of order dated 23 Apr. 1697 in Annesley MSS, xxvii. 159.

51 Documents on the reduction of Ireland in R.I.A., MS 24. G. 7 P. 83.

52 Clarke corr., no. 804.

53 Capt. Peter Poore to Major Malcolm Hamilton, 8 Aug. 1691 (Clarke corr., no. 875).

54 Tyrconnell to Louis, 5/15 Aug. 1691 (Archives nationales, fonds A I, mlxxx. 187).

55 Fumeron to —, 23 July/2 Aug. and 6/16 Aug. 1691 (ibid., nos. 178 and 192). 56 Berwick, Mémoires (1778 ed.), i. 58-9. Purcell was one of the signatories of the civil articles of Limerick.

57 De Tesse and d’Usson to Louis, 7/17 Aug. 1691 (Archives nationales, fonds A I, mlxxx. 199).

58 Fumeron to—; de Tesse and d’Usson to Louis, 7/17 Aug. 1691 (ibid., nos 201–2).

59 Gilbert, , A Jacobite narrative, p. 149.Google Scholar

60 Porter to Clarke, 19 Aug. 1691 (Clarke corr., no. 875).

61 Macariae excidium, p. 154.

62 Archives nationales, fonds A I, mlxxxi. 168.

63 Fumeron to —, 8/18 Sept. 1691, enclosing a copy of Tyrconnell’s testament (ibid., nos 155–6).

64 Ginkel’s declaration is given in full by Story, A continuation, pp. 219–20.

65 Ginkel to lords justices, 23 Sept. 1691 (H.M.C, rep. 4, app. p. 323).

66 Ginkel to Clarke, 23 Sept. 1691 (Clarke corr., no. 1010).

67 Cal. treas. papers, I697–1702, p. 114; P.R.I, rep. D.K. 57, p. 484; Cal. S.P. dorn., I693, p. 5.

68 Story, A continuation, p. 230.

69 Ginkel to Sarsfield, 30 Sept. 1691 (Clarke corr. no. 1038).

70 For these negotiations see my article ‘The original draft of the civil articles of Limerick 1691 ’ (I.H.S., viii. 37–44).

71 Gilbert, , A Jacobite narrative, pp. 176–8.Google Scholar

72 Diary (Irish Ecclesiastical JntJ v. 148).

73 The British muse—including a smart poem on the generous articles of Limerick and Galway (R.I.A., Haliday collection, box 133, tract 9).

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