Skip to main content Accessibility help

III. The Welfare Services in Indonesia, 1900–1942*

  • P. Boomgaard (a1)


It was a reluctant Dutch government, representing an equally reluctant Dutch population, that had to recognize the independent Republic of Indonesia in 1949. The so-called decolonization process had been a traumatic experience for all parties concerned. The academic community in the Netherlands was no exception to this rule, and Dutch ‘Indonesian studies’ went into a long hibernation. This applies particularly to the study of the welfare services, an aspect of Dutch colonial rule that had been the pride and glory of civil servants and scholars alike (many of them former civil servants).



Hide All


1 Wertheim, W F, Indonesian society in transition A study of social change (The Hague/Bandung 1959 2) 103104.

2 Jonkers, A, Welvaarlsiorg in Indonesie ('s-Gravenhage 1948). It is a major flaw of this otherwise interesting introduction, that co-operations do not receive the attention due to them.

3 If it could be proved that rice prices decreased more than prices for other crops, a large scale shift from the cultivation of rice to that of other crops would be understandable

4 Onderzoek naar de mindere welvaart der inlandsche bevotking op Java en Madoera, 33 vols (Batavia 1905-1914)

5 Crcutzberg, P ed, Het ekonomisch beleid in Nederlandsch-Indie, 4 vols. (Groningen 1972-1975) I, 278,Perk, A, ‘Historische ontwikkeling van de landbouwvoorlichting in Indonesie’, 5 vols (mimeo, Wageningen s a ) 1, 8.

6 Perk, , ‘Historische ontwikkeling van de landbouwvoorlichting’, II, 8,Snapper, I, ‘Medical contributions from the Netherlands Indies’, in Honig, P, Verdoorn, F eds., Science and scientists in the Netherlands Indies (New York 1945)316.

7 A detailed report of his research in Ngrowo (Kediri) can be found in Gelpke, J H F Sollewijn, Naar aanleiding van Staatsblad 1878 No 110 (Batavia 1901) for an appraisal of his work see Vries, E. de, ‘De cultuur- en bedrijfsontledingen in den inlandschen landbouw’, Landbouw VI (1930-1931)

8 For details see the Colonial Reports (Koloniaal Verslag 1871-76, additional details on the civil servants in question, see Bezemer, T J ed., Beknbpte Encyclopaedic van Nederlandsch-Indie ('s-Gravenhage/Leiden 1921).

9 Creutzberg, , Het ekonomisch beleid I, 344 and 391, on the magang system see H Sutherland, The making of a bureaucratic elite (Singapore 1979) 31 ff

10 C.J. Bernard, ‘Le jardin botanique et les institutions de botanique appliquée aux Indes Neerlandaises, in Honig and Verdoorn eds., Science and scientists, 10-15, Bezemer, Beknopte Encyclopaedic s v. Plantentuin, Perk, ‘Historische ontwikkeling’, I, 1-4

11 Cordes, J W H, De djaii-bosschen op Java (Batavia 1881) 188ff,Chijs, J A van der, Nederlandsch- Indisch Plahaatboek 1602-1811, 16 vols (Batavia 1885-1900), XIII, edict (plakaal) 8 9 1803 and XIV, edict 26 5 1808

12 Perk, ‘Historische ontwikkeling, I, 16ff, Coolhaas, W P, Insulinde, mensch en maatschappy (Deventer s a) 37,Helsdingen, W H van and Hoogenberk, H, Daar werd wat groots verricht, Nederlandsch-Indie in de XXe eeuw (Amsterdam 1941) 364.

13 Perk, , ‘Historische ontwikkeling’, II, 3,Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 38.

14 Perk, , ‘Historisch ontwikkeling', II, 35,Vries, E de, ‘De welvaartsdiensten’, in Baudet, H, Brugmans, I J. eds., Balans van beleid (Assen 1961) 275276,Vries, E de, ‘De cultuuren bedrijfsontledingen’, 48.

15 Perk, , ‘Historische ontwikkeling’, I, 31,Creutzberg, , Het ekonomisch beleid, I, 354.

16 Perk, , Historische ontwikkeling’, II, 19.

17 Boeke, J H, ‘Inlandsche budgetten’, Kolonrale Studren Xl 1926) 229.

18 Vries, De, ‘De cultuur-en bedrijfsontledingen’, 38ff

19 Ibidem, 48, Perk, , 'Historische ontwikkeling’, 11, 59.

20 Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 47, the results of the project were published as al, J J Ochse et., ‘Gelden producten-huishouding, volksvoeding en -gezondheid in Koetowinangoen’, Landbouw X, 4/5 (1934).

21 Creutzberg, Het ekonomisch beleid, I, S13ff.

22 Timmer, W.J., Object en methode der sodale agronomie (Dissertation, Batavia 1947.

23 Most of the following section comes from Perk, , ‘Historische ontwikkeling’, I, see alsoMol, G A de, ‘Vijf en twintig jaren eenvoudig landbouwonderwijs in Nederlandsch-lndie’, Landbouw XIII, 7/8 (1937) 262337.

24 Mol, De, ‘Vijf en twintig jaren’, 265266.

25 Vries, E de, ‘Rijstpolitiek op Java in vroeger jaren’, Landbouw XIII (1937) 155.

26 Boomgaard, P, ‘Disease, death and disasters in Java, 1820-1880’, (Paper for the Conference on Disease, drugs and death in modern Southeast Asian History, Canberra, 1983) 4.

27 Hugenholtz, W.R., ‘Famine and food supply in Java 1830-1914’(Paper, s a. 1984).

28 Most data in this section are from Creutzberg, Het ekonomisch beleid, II, Chapter II.

29 Perk, , ‘Historische ontwikkeling’, II, 1.

30 Vries, De, ‘Rijstpolitiek op java’, 152.

31 Burger, D H, Sociologisch-Economische geschiedenis van Indonesie, 2 vols. (Wageningen 1975) II, 127ff.

32 For a more detailed study of Indramayu see Breman, J., Agrarische misstanden en hervormingen in Cirebon (Rotterdam 1981), for Bojonegoro Penders, C L M, ‘The “ethical” policy in action the effect of cheaper credit facilities and agricultural extension in Bojonegoro and Tulungagung’ (Paper for the Conference on Economic growth and social change in Indonesia 1820-1940, Groningen, 1984).

33 Creutzberg, , Het ekonomisch beleid, II, 421ff.

34 Scheltema, A M P A, The food consumption of the native inhabitants of Java and Madura (Batavia 1936),Creutzberg, , Het ekonomisch beleid, II, 527, A. Booth, ‘Accommodating a growing population in Javanese agriculture’(Paper, s a ).

35 Most of the information for this section comes from J Th Metzelaar, ‘Irrigatie’, in C J J van Hall and C van de Koppel eds., De Landbouw in den Indischen Archipel I (Den Haag 1946) 2p1–238, Lekkerkerker, C, ‘Verbetering en vermeerdering van cultuurgrond op Java’, Indische Gids LI, 1 (1929) 521557,Burger, , Sociologisch-Economische geschiedenis van Indonesie II,Helsdingen, Van and Hoogenberk, , Daar werd wot pools verricht, 273285,Meulen, W A van der, ‘Irrigation in the Netherlands Indies’, Bulletin of the Colonial Institute III, 3-4 (1940) 142159.

36 Different figures are found in the literature, but the trend is the same.

37 Schoute, D., De geneeshunde in Nederlandsch-Indie gedurende de negentiende eeuw (Batavia 1934-1935),Theunissen, W F, ‘The Public Health Service, a brief survey’, Bulletin of the Colonial Institute III, 34 (1940) 160161 The term DVG will be used for the entire period 1911-1942.

38 Boomgaard, ‘Disease, death and disasters’.

39 Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 80.

40 Peverelli, P., De torg voor de volksgezondheid in N I ('s-Gravenhage s a ) 23, Theunissen, ‘The Public Health Service’, 170

41 Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 100101,Peverelli, , ‘De zorg voor de volksgezondheid’, 2324,Bulletin Dienst der volksgezondheid hygienische organisatie, several issues.

42 Peverelli, , ‘De zorg voor de volksgezondheid’, 99100.

43 For nineteenth century diseases see Boomgaard, ‘Disease, death and disasters’, for the twentieth century Snapper, ‘Medical contributions’, Helsdingen, Van and Hoogenberk, , Daar werd wat groots verricht, 394396,Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 8799.

44 This section is largely based on Hul, T H, ‘Plague in Java’ (Paper for the Conference on Disease, drugs and death in modern Southeast Asia, Canberra, 1983).

45 Ibidem, 2-3.

46 Snapper, , ‘Medical contributions’, 316317.

47 See Brown, C., ‘The 1918 influenza pandemic in Indonesia’ (Paper for the Conference on Disease, drugs and death in modern Southeast Asia, Canberra, 1983).

48 Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 118.

49 Margono Djojohadikoesoemo, Tien jaren codperatie-voorlkhting vanwege de overheid, 1930-1940 (Batavia 1941) 11.

50 , Coolhaas, Insulinde, 122ff.

51 Boomgaard, P, ‘Buitenzorg in 1805, the role of money and credit in a colonial frontier society’(Paper fortheVth KOTA Conference, Leiden, 1984).

52 Coolhaas, , Insulinde, 116-17 and 133, Margono Djojohadikoesoemo, Tien jaren cobperalievoorlichting, 99ff.

53 Djojohadikoesoemo, Margono, Tien jaren cobperatie-voorlichting, 27ff, 34ff, 68ff, 104105,Djojohadikoesoemo, Soemitro, Het volkscredietwezen in de depressie(Haarlem 1943) 187188.

54 Creutzberg, , Het ekonomisch beleid, II, 468488.

55 Djojohadikoesoemo, Margono, Tien jaren cooperatie-voorlichting, 103, Timmer, Object en methode der sociale agronomic, 213ff.

56 Djojohadikoesoemo, Margono, Tien jaren cooperatie-voorlichting, 8283.

57 Vries, De, ‘De welvaartsdiensten’, 284.

58 Verhagen, K., Co-operations for survival (Amsterdam/Geneva 1984)4.

59 Maunder, A H, Agricultural extension, a reference manual (Rome 1972) 4.

60 The training and support of primary health care workers, Proceedings 1981 international Health Conference (Washington 1981)62.

* I am indebted to Judith van Oosterom for her critical remar ks on my English.

III. The Welfare Services in Indonesia, 1900–1942*

  • P. Boomgaard (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed