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Archaeology in Eastern Africa: An Overview of Current Chronological Issues

  • Paul J. J. Sinclair (a1)

Even at this still early stage in the development of the chronostratigraphic framework in eastern Africa a number of important advances have been reported. As more attention is paid to the different responses of food producers to the variety of resources provided by the range of available environments then, and only then, will we be in a position to understand the diachronic processes which result in settlement aggregation and urban development.

In the Lake Nyanza region at the hub of the Sudanic and Guinea–Congolian regional vegetation centres, early dates for iron working are not yet convincing enough to demonstrate independent invention of iron working, but the region is almost certainly the most important diffusion source of the technique to the eastern and southern sectors of the sub-continent.

Currently available data from the Maasai–Somali region show clearly the early adoption of food production techniques and a capacity to absorb iron technology without necessarily abandoning pastoral production. This did not, however, mean a lack of development based on agriculture as the towns of the Somali coast with their advanced craft production clearly show. However, it is interesting that the urban development seems closely linked to the juxtaposition of the valuable agricultural resources provided by the Shabelle river running close to the coast and the marine resources of the littoral.

The Zanzibar–Inhambane floral mosaic provides a context for the spread southwards of the early farming communities and for the development of the coastal towns. Particularly important here appears to have been the combination of surface and arboreal forms of agriculture with the exploitation of marine resources. Links eastwards with the specialized floral communities of the Comoro archipelago and Madagascar were also fully established. The highlands of Madagascar experienced the expansion from the eleventh century a.d. onwards of a settlement system increasingly focused upon hydraulic agriculture which culminated in the powerful Merina kingdom and ultimately the present day capital of Antananarivo.

On the continent relatively little penetration into the Zambezian miombo woodland communities was achieved by the coastal urban dwellers. In the woodlands of the vast highlands of the interior different developmental trajectories of settlement systems occurred. Here food production cannot be shown to have become established earlier than the late first millennium b.c. But by the mid first millennium a.d. significant settlement hierarchies based on mixed cropping and cattle keeping were established on the Zimbabwe plateau and the margins of the Kalahari. These together with the incorporation of the opportunities presented by inter-regional exchange and the exotic trade goods penetrating from the coast ultimately gave rise to the powerful state formations of the Mapungubwe and Zimbabwe traditions.

Together these developments show a remarkable degree of regional articulation and it remains true that an adequate understanding of the processes giving rise to urbanism in any part of eastern Africa cannot be understood in isolation.

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1 Robertshaw, P., ‘Archaeology in Eastern Africa: recent developments and more dates’, J. Afr. Hist., xxv (1984), 369–93.

2 Sinclair, P. J. J. and Wandibba, S. (eds.), Urban Origins in Eastern Africa: Project Proposals and Workshop Summaries, Project Working Papers, Sweden Paper No. 1, Central Board of National Antiquities (Stockholm, 1988); Sinclair, P. J. J., Urban Origins in Eastern Africa: Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Outline, Project Working Papers, Sweden Paper No. 2, Central Board of National Antiquities (Stockholm, 1988); Sinclair, P. J. J., Urban Origins in Eastern Africa: The Mombasa Specialist Workshop, 1–6 August 1988, Project Working Papers, Sweden Paper No. 3, Central Board of National Antiquities (Stockholm, 1988).

3 Stuiver, M. and Reimar, P. J., ‘A computer programme for radiocarbon age calibration’, Radiocarbon, XXVIII (1986), 1022–30.

4 Phillipson, D. W., The Later Prehistory of Eastern and Southern Africa (London, 1977); idem, African Archaeology (Cambridge, 1985); Collett, D. P., ‘The spread of early iron-producing communities in eastern and southern Africa’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1985).

5 Parkington, J. E. P. and Hall, M., ‘Patterning in recent radiocarbon dates from southern Africa as a reflection of prehistory settlement and interaction’, J. Afr. Hist., xxviii (1987), 125.

6 White, F., ‘The vegetation of Africa’, UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa, Natural Resources Research Series 20 (Paris, 1983).

7 I am grateful to Professor Wright for making a great deal of unpublished material available for this paper.

8 Smith, M. C. and Wright, H. T., ‘Notes on a classical maritime site: the ceramics from Ras Hafun, Somalia’, Azania, XXIII (1988), 115–42.

9 A. Broberg, pers. comm.; Dualeh, A., ‘Early trading centres along the coast of southern Somalia’, in Sinclair, P. J. J. and Rakotoarisoa, J. A. (eds.), Urban Origins in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of the 1989 Madagascar Workshop, Project Working Papers, Sweden Paper No. 4, Central Board of National Antiquities (Stockholm, 1989).

10 Chittick, H. N., ‘Medieval Mogadishu’, Paideuma, XXVIII (1982), 4462.

11 Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘Pottery from the 1986 rescue excavations at the Shangani Mosque in Mogadishu’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

12 Dualeh, ‘Early trading centres’.

13 Sanseverino, H., ‘Reconnaissance in southern Somalia’, Nyame Akuma, XXII (1983), 22; Mussi, M., ‘Excavations in southern Somalia’, Nyame Akuma, XXIV/XXV (1984), 18.

14 Coltorti, M. and Mussi, M., ‘Late Stone Age hunter-gatherers of the Juba Valley’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 32–3.

15 Brandt, S. and Gresham, T. H., ‘Jess Report on cultural heritage survey of proposed Baardheere Reservoir’, in Associates in Rural Development (Burlington, 1988).

16 OxA-741.

17 Phillipson, African Archaeology, and Phillipson, pers. comm.; Gowlett, J. A. J., Hedges, R. E. M., Law, I. A. and Perry, C., ‘Radiocarbon dates from the Oxford AMS system: archaeometry date list 5’, Archaeometry, XXIX (1987), 125–35.

18 Robertshaw, ‘Archaeology’

19 Collett, ‘Spread of early’.

20 Kiriama, H., ‘The iron using communities of Kenya’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

21 Mutoro, H. W., ‘An archaeological study of the Mijikenda Kaya settlements on the historical Kenya coast’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Berkeley, 1987); idem, ‘Settlement origins and development on the Kenya coastal hinterland’, in Sinclair and Wandibba (eds.), Project Proposals and Workshop Summaries.

22 Schmidt, P. R., ‘Eastern expressions of the “Mwitu” tradition: Early Iron Age industry of the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 36–7.

23 B 17046, 17047; SMU 1818.

24 Collett, ‘Spread of early iron-producing’.

25 Cruz e Silva, T., ‘A preliminary report on an early Iron Age site: Matola IV/68’, in Leakey, R. E. F. and Ogot, B. A. (eds.), Proceedings, VIIIth Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (Nairobi, 1979), 349; Sinclair, P. J. J., Nydolf, N. G. and Wickman-Nydolf, G. W., ‘Excavations at the University Campus site 2532 Dc I, southern Mozambique’, Studies in African Archaeology, 1, International Report Series (Stockholm and Maputo, 1984); Morais, J. M., ‘The early farming communities sites of southern Mozambique’, Studies in African Archaeology, in, International Report Series (Stockholm and Maputo, 1986).

26 B 24623, 24624, 24625, 24626, 24627. See Chami, F., ‘A coastal Early Iron Age site in Kisarawe District’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 34–5.

27 Adamowicz, L., ‘Report and comments on the progress of the CIPRIANA 81/85 Archaeological Project—Nampula Province’, Textos para debate 6, Nampula (Departamento de Arqueologia e Antropologia, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, 1985; second edition, 1986); Cruz e Silva, ‘Preliminary Report’; Sinclair et al., ‘University Campus site’; Morais, ‘Early farming’.

28 Horton, M. C., ‘The early settlement of the north Swahili coast’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1984); idem, ‘Early Muslim trading settlements on the East African coast’, Antiquaries Journal, lxviii (1986), 290–323.

29 SA 1892, 1647, 1512, 0659, 0616, 0590.

30 Horton, pers. comm.

31 Abungu, G. H. O., ‘Communities on the Tana River, Kenya: an archaeological study of relations between the delta and the river basin, 700–1890 A.D.’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1990).

32 Kirkman, J., Ungwana on the Tana (The Hague, 1966); Leakey, L. S. B., Stone Age Africa: An Outline Prehistory in Africa (Oxford, 1936); Chittick, H. N., Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast (Nairobi, 1974).

33 Wright, H. T., ‘Early seafarers of the Comores Islands: the Dembeni phase of the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.‘, Azania, XIX (1984), 1360.

34 Vérin, P., The History of Civilisation in North Madagascar, translated by Smith, D. (Rotterdam, 1986); Wright, H. T. and Rakotoarisoa, J. A., ‘The archaeology of complex societies in Madagascar: case studies in cultural diversification’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

35 Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘Chibuene: an early trading site in southern Mozambique’, Paideuma, XXVIII (1982), 149–64.

36 Soper, R. C., ‘Iron Age sites in northeastern Tanzania’, Azania, 11 (1967), 1936.

37 Chami, pers. comm.

38 Abungu, ‘Communities’.

39 Horton, M. C. and Clark, C., ‘Zanzibar Archaeological Survey, 1984–85’, unpublished report, 1986.

40 Horton, M. C., Brown, H. M. and Oddy, W. A., ‘The Mtambwe hoard’, Azania, XXI (1986), 115–23.

41 Juma, A. and Syse, B., ‘Preliminary Report of excavations at Unguja Ukuu, Zanzibar’, unpublished report, 1989, and Juma, pers. comm.

42 Matteru, E., Lofgren, A., Nydolf, N. and Wickman-Nydolf, G., ‘Field excavations at Kilwa Kisiwani’, unpublished preliminary report, 1989, available at the Antiquities Unit, Dar es Salaam.

43 Chittick, Kilwa.

44 Duarte, R. T., ‘Moçambique e o índico: Evidências arqueológicas do passado de Moçambique na sua relação com a história dos contactos commerciais entre os diversos povos do oceano índico’, Trabalhos de arqueologia e Antropologia, No. 3 (Maputo, 1987); Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘An archaeological survey of northern Mozambique Part II, Cabo Delgado Province’, Working Papers in African Studies, 12 (Department of Cultural Anthropology, Uppsala University, 1985).

45 Adamowicz, ‘Report and comments’.

46 Morais, J. M., ‘Mozambican archaeology: past and present’, Afr. Archaeological Rev., 11 (1984), 113–28; idem, ‘Early farming communities’; Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘Space, time and social formation: a territorial approach to the archaeology and anthropology of Zimbabwe and Mozambique, c. 0–1700 A.D.’, Aun, IX (1987).

47 The author wishes to thank L. Adamowicz for his comments on the following section.

48 St 9022, 9023, 9024, and 9025 from Riane; St 8194, 8195, 8196, 8197, 8198 and 8200 from Nakwaho; and St 8694, 8695 and 9201 from Xacota.

49 St 11006.

50 St 9200 and St 9198.

51 St 9021.

52 St 9770, 9704 and 9705.

53 St 8194.

54 St 11005.

55 St 9194 and 9196.

56 St 11004.

57 St 9199.

58 St 9020.

59 St 8692.

60 St 9705.

61 Cf. Phillipson, , The Later Prehistory, 23.

62 St 9775.

63 Sinclair, ‘Archeological reconnaissance I’.

64 Sinclair, ‘Archaeological reconnissance II’.

65 St 8498.

66 Sassoon, H., ‘Pottery from the wreck in Mombasa harbour’, Azania, XVI (1981), 97130.

67 St 11007.

68 St 9772.

69 Adamowicz, ‘Report and comments’.

70 The author is grateful to R. Duarte for providing details of unpublished materials.

71 Morais, ‘Early farming communities’.

72 St 8491, 8492, 8493 and 9703.

73 Sinclair, ‘Chibuene’; idem, ‘Space, time and social formation’; St 8494, 8495 and 8496.

74 Wright, pers. comm.; Kervan, M. and Hiebert, F., ‘Sohar pre-Islamique: stratigraphique’, unpublished paper, no date; Labrousse, A. and Boucharlat, R., ‘La fouille du palais du Chaour à Suse en 1970 et 1971’, Cahiers de la Délégation Archéologique Française en Iran, 11 (1974), 61168.

75 Smith and Wright, ‘Ceramics from Ras Hafun’.

76 Wright, pers. comm.

77 St 8497.

78 Sinclair, ‘Space, time and social formation’.

79 St 11590; Adamowicz, pers. comm.

80 Morais, ‘Early farming communities’; Sinclair, ‘Space, time and social formation’.

81 St 8880, 8889, 8890, 8893 and 8894.

82 St 8873, 8874 and 8892.

83 St 8546 and 8547.

84 Sinclair et al., ‘University Campus site’; Sinclair, ‘Space, time and social formation’; St 9836, 9837 and 9838.

85 Maggs, T., ‘The Iron Age sequence south of the Pongola river: some historical implications’, J. Afr. Hist., XXI (1980), 115; Morais, ‘Early farming communities’.

86 Huffman, T. N., ‘Archaeology and the ethnohistory of the African Iron Age’, Annual Review of Anthropology, XI (1982), 133–50.

87 Chittick, H. N., ‘Barawa’, Nyame Akuma, XXII (1983), 22.

88 The author wishes to record his grateful thanks to P. Vérin, H. Wright, C. Allibert and C. Chanudet for the very considerable assistance they have offered in compiling this section.

89 Ly 4196.

90 Ly 4196; Chanudet, C., ‘Contribution à l'étude du peuplement de l'île de Moheli’, in Urban Origins in Eastern Africa: Comoros Working Papers, No. 1 (Moroni, Comoros, 1988).

91 Wright, H. T., ‘New determinations of absolute dates from Comorean archaeological sites’, La Banque de Donnes du CICIBA NSI, 1 (1987), 37–8.

92 SMU 1521.

93 Dur TL 50–8(a)AS.

94 SMU 1518.

95 Ly 4416; Allibert, C., ‘Early settlement on the Comoro archipelago’, National Geographic Research (Autumn 1989); Fontes, P., Coudray, J., Eberschweiler, Ch. and Fontes, J.-Ch., ‘Datation et conditions d'occupation du site de Koungou (île de Mayotte)’, Revue d'archéométrie, XI (1987), 7782.

96 C 2790, 2788, 2786, 2631, 2627 and 2630.

97 Fontes et al., ‘Datation’.

98 Ly 2687.

99 Allibert, ‘Early settlement’.

100 The major research centres at the Museum of Archaeology and the Centre for Archaeology, both at the University of Antananarivo, are responsible for much of the research in Madagascar, and the author wishes to record his thanks to colleagues from these institutions for much assistance received.

101 Macphee, R. D. E., Burney, D. A. and Wells, N. A., ‘Early Holocene chronology and environment of Ampasambazimba, a Malagasy sub-fossil lemur site’, International J. Primatology, VI (1989), 461–87; Burney, D. A., ‘Late Holocene vegetation change in central Madagascar’, Quaternary Research, XXVIII (1987), 130–43; Burney, D. A., ‘Late Quaternary stratigraphic charcoal records from Madagascar’, Quaternary Research, XVIII (1987), 274–80; Burney, D. A., Macphee, R. D. E., Rafamantanantasoa, G., Rakotondrazafy, T. and Kling, G. W., ‘The roles of natural factors and human activities in the environmental changes and faunal extinctions of late Holocene Madagascar’, in Sondaar, P. and Sanges, T. (eds.), Early Man in Island Environments (forthcoming).

102 B 15584, 15585, 16807, 16808, 14854.

103 Burney, ‘Late Holocene’.

104 AA 2895.

105 Dewar, R. E., address to ‘The SOAS Colloquium on Madagascar’, London, 1986; Beta 18424 and Beta 18425 and 18246 respectively.

106 Dewar, R. E., ‘Malagasy roots’, Natural History, LXXXVII (July 1987), 51.

107 Bellwood, P., Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (Melbourne, 1986).

108 Wright and Rakotoarisoa, ‘Complex societies’.

109 Vérin, History of Civilization; Gak 3510; Radimilahy, Ch., ‘Mahilaka: rapport préliminaire’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

110 St 12097 and 12098.

111 Radimilahy, ‘Mahilaka’.

112 Mille, A., ‘Contribution à l'étude des villages fortifiés de l'Imerina Ancien’, Travaux et documents (Musée d'Art et d'Archéologie, Université de Madagascar, 1970).

113 Rakotovololona, S., ‘Premiers résultats de la fouille d'Ankadivory’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

114 H. T. Wright, ‘New determinations of absolute dates for sites in central Madagascar’ (forthcoming).

115 Wright and Rakotoarisoa, ‘Complex societies’.

116 Gif 5471; Rasamuel, D., ‘Fanongoavana, une capitale princière malgache du XIVèrne siècle’ (thèse de doctorat d'Etat, Paris, 1984); Wright, ‘New determinations in central Madagascar’.

117 Wright, Ibid.: SMU 1520, 2075, 1522, Dur TL 50–14AS, Dur TL 77–1 AS and Dur TL 77–2AS.

118 Dur TL 50–11(a)AS and Dur TL 50–11(b)AS.

119 Dur TL 77–3AS, -4AS, -5AS and -6AS. See Wright, ‘New determinations in central Madagascar’.

120 Rahaijoana, V., ‘Etude du peuplement de l'espace d'une vallée des Hautes Terres Centrales de Madagascar: archéologie de la Manandona (XVe-XVIe)’ (thèse de doctorat d'Etat, INALCO, Paris, 1988); idem, ‘La répartition des habitats anciens dans une vallée des Hautes Terres Malgaches au XIXe siècle’, in Sinclair and Rakotoarisoa (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

121 SMU 1519, Dur TL 50–9AS and Dur TL 50–13AS.

122 Beta 14167, 14168 and 14169; Rabejaona, C., Premiers résultats desfouilles d'Ambohipanompo (Paris, 1983).

123 B 24479; V. Raharijoana, ‘Etude du peuplement’.

124 Ly 3911 and 3912; Vérin, pers. comm.

125 Battistini, R. and Vérin, P., ‘Irodo et la tradition Vohemarienne’, Revue de Madagascar, XXXVI (1966), 1132.

126 Gak 926, 927, 928 and 1057.

127 Fontes et al., ‘Datation’.

128 Quoted in Wright, ‘New determinations in central Madagascar’.

129 Ramiandriosoa, C., ‘Archéologie de la baie de Saint-Augustin’ (Université de Madagascar, Tuléar, 1984). These dates have no laboratory numbers.

130 Gif 4571, 4572, 4570 and TL 75.4AS.

131 Gif 4496.

132 TL 75.5AS; Wright, ‘New determinations in central Madagascar’; see also Heurtebize, G., ‘Les anciennes cultures de L'Androi central’, Taloha, X (1986), 171–9.

133 Robertshaw, P., Collett, D. P., Gifford, D. and Mbea, N., ‘Shell middens on the shores of Lake Victoria’, Azania, XVIII (1983), 143; Robertshaw, ‘Archaeology’, and Robertshaw, pers. comm.; Wandibba, S., ‘An attribute analysis of the ceramics of the early pastoralist period from the southern Rift Valley’ (M.A. thesis, University of Nairobi, 1977); Bower, J. R. F., ‘Subsistence settlement systems of the pastoral Neolithic in East Africa’, in Kryzyzaniak, L. and Kobuslewic, M. (eds.), Origin and Early Development of Food Producing Cultures in Northeastern Africa (Poznan, 1984); idem, ‘Evolution of Stone Age food producing cultures in East Africa’, in J. R. F. Bower and D. Lubell (eds.), Prehistoric Cultures and Environments in the Late Quaternary of Africa, BAR International Series No. 405 (London, 1988), 91–114; Bower, J. R. F., Nelson, C. M., Waibel, A. F. and Wandibba, S., ‘The University of Massachusetts Later Stone Age-pastoral Neolithic comparative study in central Kenya: an overview’, Azania, XII (1977), 119–43.

134 Collett, D. P. and Robertshaw, P., ‘A new framework for the study of early pastoral communities in East Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXIV (1983), 289301; idem, ‘Pottery traditions of early pastoral communities in Kenya’, Azania, XVIII (1983), 107–25; idem, ‘Problems in the interpretation of radiocarbon dates: the pastoral Neolithic of East Africa’, Afr. Archaeological Rev., 1 (1983), 57–74; and Robertshaw, pers. comm.

135 Oxa 745.

136 P. Robertshaw, ‘Recent work on the Neolithic in Africa’ (forthcoming).

137 Merrick, H. V. and Brown, F. H., ‘Obsidian sources and patterns of source utilization in Kenya and Tanzania: some initial findings’, Afr. Archaeological Rev., 11 (1984), 129–52.

138 Wandibba, S., ‘Sub-project 1: Stone structures of Nyanza Province, Western Kenya’, in Sinclair, and Wandibba, (eds.), Project Proposals and Workshop Summaries; Lofgren, L., ‘Stone structures in South Nyanza, Kenya’, Azania, 11 (1967), 75134.

139 Wandibba, Ibid.; Simiyu, V., ‘Human settlement in South Nyanza: fifteenth to nineteenth centuries’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

140 Schmidt, P. R. and Childs, S. T., ‘Innovation and industry during the early Iron Age in East Africa: the KM2 and KM3 sites of northwest Tanzania’, Afr. Archaeological Rev., III (1985), 5394.

141 B 2244, 2245, 2246, 2247, 10490, 10491 and 10492; RL 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014 and 1015.

142 B 2243, 2241, 2242, 2239, 2240 and 10494; SMU 1433, 1434 and RL 1260.

143 B 10493.

144 van Grunderbeck, C., Roche, E. and Doutrelepont, H., ‘Le premier âge du fer au Rwanda et Burundi: archéologie et environment’, J. des Africanistes, LII (1982), 158.

145 Clist, B., ‘A critical re-evaluation of the chronological framework of the early Urewe Iron Age industry’, Muntu, VI (1987), 3562.

146 Sutton, J. E. G., ‘The Interlacustrine region: new work on the later Iron Age’, Nyame Akuma, XXIX (1988), 62–4.

147 Har 8623, 8629 and 8625.

148 Har 8615 and 8630; Sutton, pers. comm.

149 Sutton, pers. comm.

150 Reid, A. and Robertshaw, P., ‘A new look at Ankole capital sites’, Azania, XXII (1987), 83–8; Oliver, R., ‘Ancient capital sites in Ankole’, Uganda J., XXIII (1959), 5163.

151 Gx 13692, 13693 and 13694.

152 Robertshaw, pers. comm.

153 Gx 14206, 14207, 14208 and 14209; Robertshaw, pers. comm.

154 Wandibba, ‘Sub-project 1’; Collett and Robertshaw, ‘Framework’; idem, ‘Pottery’; idem, ‘Neolithic’; Bower, ‘Evolution’; Ambrose, S. H., ‘Archaeology and linguistic reconstruction of history in East Africa’, in Ehret, C. and Posnansky, M. (eds.), The Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of African History (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1982), 104; Abuje, J. C. Onyango, ‘Crescent Island: a preliminary report on excavations at an East African Neolithic site’, Azania, XXII (1987), 147–59.

155 Bower, ‘Evolution’; Collett and Robertshaw, ‘Pottery’.

156 Barthelme, J., Fishers, Hunters and Neolithic Pastoralists in East Turkana, Kenya, BAR International Series 252 (Cambridge, 1985).

157 The following unpublished information has kindly been provided by Ambrose.

158 Bower, ‘Evolution’.

159 Robertshaw, ‘Archaeology’; Robertshaw, P., Early Pastoralists in South-western Kenya (Nairobi, 1990).

160 Robertshaw, Early Pastoralists.

161 Bower, J. R. F. and Chadderton, T. J., ‘Further excavations of pastoral neolithic sites in Serengeti’, Azania, XXI (1986), 129–33; Bower, ‘Evolution’; Bower, pers. comm.

162 GX 11045, 5641A, 10620 and 11042.

163 GX 10619 and 10617.

164 Bower, ‘Evolution’.

165 Collett and Robertshaw, ‘Framework’; idem, ‘Pottery’; idem, ‘Neolithic’.

168 Bower and Chadderton, ‘Neolithic sites’.

167 Sutton, J. E. G., ‘Hyrax Hill and the Sirikwa: new excavations on site II’, Azania, XXII (1987), 136; idem, ‘Deloraine and the Rift Valley sequence’, Nyame Akuma, XXIX (1987), 62–4.

168 Har 6912, 6913 and 6914.

169 Har 8404, 8405 and 8406.

170 Har 8407.

171 Sutton, ‘Hyrax Hill’.

172 Robertshaw, ‘Archaeology’; Sutton, ‘Hyrax Hill’.

173 The author wishes to acknowledge the extensive assistance rendered by S. Davison and comments by Y. M. Juwayeyi in the writing of the following section.

174 Mgomezulu, G. G. Y., ‘Recent archaeological research and radiocarbon dates from eastern Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., XXII (1981), 449.

175 Robinson, K. R., ‘The Iron Age in northern Malawi: an archaeological reconnaissance’, Publication 20, Department of Antiquities, Malawi (1982), 92, 104.

176 Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘An archaeological survey in northern Malawi: report on seven areas of Iron Age settlement and smelting’, unpublished report, Department of Antiquities, Lilongwe (1986), 315–21.

177 idem, ‘Skeletal material in southern Malawi’, Nyame Akuma, XXX (1988), 12–21.

178 idem, ‘The occurrence and identification of Rungwe (‘Kisii’) pottery imported into northern Malawi during the Iron Age’, Nyame Akuma, XXIX (1987), 45–51.

179 idem, ‘Skeletal material’.

180 van der Merwe, N. J. and Avery, D. H., ‘Science and magic in African technology: traditional iron smelting in Malawi’, Africa, LVII (1987), 143–72.

181 Mgomezulu, ‘Recent archaeological research’.

182 Juwayeyi, pers. comm.

183 Crader, D. C., ‘Faunal remains from Chencherere II rockshelter, Malawi’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, XXXIV (1984), 3752; UCLA 1852B, C and D.

184 Crader, D. C., ‘Hunters in Iron Age Malawi: zooarchaeology of the Chencherere rockshelter’, Publication 21, Department of Antiquities, Lilongwe (1984).

185 Killick, D., ‘Recent iron smelting in central Malawi’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 27–9.

186 Har 4704 and Pta 3553; Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘Further excavations at Namikombe Point’, unpublished report, Department of Antiquities, Lilongwe (1982); Crossley, R., Davison-Hirschmann, S., Owen, R. B. and Shaw, P., ‘Lake level fluctuations during the last 2000 years in Malawi’, in Vogel, J. C. (ed.), Late Cainozoic Palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere (Rotterdam, 1984), 306.

187 Davison, pers. comm.

188 Pta 3315; Crossley et al., ‘Lake level’; Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘Archaeological investigations into fluctuations of Lakes Malawi and Chilwa: final report on field research ending 31 March 1984’, unpublished paper, 1984.

189 Juwayeyi, pers. comm.

190 Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Fluctuations’.

191 Pta 3750, 3752 and 3754; Davison, pers. comm.

192 Har 4704; Crossley, R. S. and Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘Hydrology and archaeology of Lake Malawi and its outlet during the Iron Age’, Paleoecology in Africa, XIII (1981), 123–6; idem, ‘High levels of Lake Malawi during the late Quarternary’, Paleoecology in Africa, XV (1982), 109–15; Crossley et al., ‘Lake levels’; Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Fluctuations’.

193 Pta 2803; R 4096; I 11852.

194 Pta 2804.

195 Har 4703; Pta 2805; Juwayeyi, Y., ‘The distribution of Longwe pottery sites in southern Malawi’, Nyame Akuma, XXVII (1986), 23–5.

196 Pta 3756 and 3757; Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Fluctuations’.

197 Har 4703 and 4702; Pta 3550 and 3534; Crossley and Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Hydrology’; idem, ‘High levels’; Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Fluctuations’; Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘Deepening of trench GT II, Crocodile Gully, Namaso Bay’, unpublished internal research and site report, Department of Antiquities, Lilongwe (1980); Crossley et al., ‘Lake level’.

198 Pta 3546; Davison-Hirschmann, ‘Deepening of trench’; idem, ‘Archaeological investigations into fluctuations of Lakes Malawi and Chilwa: second annual report on field season ending 31 March 1983’, unpublished internal research and site report, Department of Antiquities, Lilongwe (1983).

199 Har 4701; Pta 3316; Shaw, P., Crossley, R. and Davison-Hirschmann, S., ‘A major fluctuation in the level of Lake Chilwa, Malawi, during the Iron Age’, Paleoecology in Africa, XVI (1984), 391–5.

200 Davison, pers. comm.

201 Bisson, M., ‘The radiocarbon chronology of Luano’, Nyame Akuma, XXVIII (1987), 4951; I 12606, 12603, 12643, 12605, 12641, 12604, 12601, 12642, 12602, 12645, 12644, 12646.

202 I 12645, 12644 and 12646.

203 Musonda, F. B., ‘The significance of pottery in Zambian later Stone Age contexts’, Afr. Archaeological Rev., v (1987), 147–58.

204 Vogel, J. O., ‘Micro-environments, swidden and the early Iron Age settlements of south-western Zambia’, Azania, XXI (1986), 8597; idem, ‘Iron Age farmers in southwestern Zambia: some aspects of spatial organisation’, Cambridge Review of African Archaeology, v (1987), 159–70.

205 Hall, M., The Changing Past: Farmers, Kings and Traders in Southern Africa, 200–1860 (Cape Town, 1987); Huffman, T. N., ‘Iron age settlement patterns and the origins of class distinction in southern Africa’, Advances in World Archaeology, v (1986), 291338.

206 Sinclair, P. J. J. and Lundmark, H., ‘A spatial analysis of archaeological sites from Zimbabwe’, in Hall, M., Avery, G., Avery, D. M., Wilson, M. L. and Humphreys, A. J. B. (eds.), Frontiers: Southern African Archaeology Today, BAR International Series 207 (Oxford, 1984); Sinclair, ‘Space, time and social formation’.

207 Members of the research unit kindly provided the author with data in advance of publication.

208 Pwiti, G., ‘The Great Zimbabwe tradition in northern Zimbabwe: the Mutapa state’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

209 Lu 3044, 3045 and 3046.

210 St 10949 and10948.

211 St 10944, 10946, 11521, 11522, 11523 and 11524.

212 Pikirayi, I., ‘The Portuguese phase of the later Iron Age in Zimbabwe’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

213 Tagart, C., ‘A Zimbabwe period burial site’, Nyame Akuma, xxviii (1987), 54–6; R. Soper, pers. comm; UA 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306 and 1307.

214 Lu 3163 and 3164.

215 Sinclair, P. J. J., ‘Some aspects of the economic level of the Zimbabwe state’, Zimbabwea, 1 (1984), 4853; Sinclair, ‘Space, time and social formation’.

216 Collett, pers. comm.; Murambiwa, I., ‘Stratigraphy and settlement pattern at Great Zimbabwe and Khami’, in Sinclair, and Rakotoarisoa, (eds.), Madagascar Workshop.

217 Collett, pers. comm.

218 Pta 1983, 2693, 2694, 2704, 2705, 2706 and 2711; W 774; M 913 and 915.

219 Apart from Pta 1983 and M913, which fall within the fourth and seventh centuries a.d.

220 Collett, pers. comm.

221 Pta 4169.

222 Finally, the present author, together, I am sure, with many others would like to pay tribute to two great pioneers in African archaeology, the late K. R. Robinson and J. Kirkman, whose contributions to building up the primary chronostratigraphic framework of south central and eastern Africa over the past 40 years remain in many ways unsurpassed.

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The Journal of African History
  • ISSN: 0021-8537
  • EISSN: 1469-5138
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