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New Radiocarbon Dates for Northern and Western Africa

  • Merrick Posnansky (a1) and Roderick McIntosh (a2)

Several significant trends are noted in the recent radiocarbon dates from North and West Africa. The early Khartoum Neolithic dates from Nabta Playa of the seventh millennium B.C. and the thermoluminescence dates from the Badarian of the sixth millennium, would appear to have redressed the balance for the time being in favour of the Nile Valley in the argument as to whether agriculture in the Nile Valley predates that in the Sahara. A more cautious approach might be to say that these dates emphasize the need for far more securely dated evidence before conclusions are drawn on this complicated, and often emotional, problem. The presence of sorghum in the first quarter of the first millennium A.D. at Jebel et Tomat provides the earliest direct evidence for this key African agricultural staple. Many interesting very late Stone Age dates have come from West Africa and indicate the contemporaneity of stone and iron using communities throughout the first millennium A.D. in certain remote areas. The dates of the Senegambia megaliths are clearly falling within the first millennium A.D. Dates for iron working in both Nigeria and Ghana are confirming that iron technology was well established by the first half of the first millennium A.D. The dates from Ife and elsewhere in Nigeria are clearly indicating that the ‘classic’ terracotta period, and also the pottery pavements, belong to the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries. The state of research in North and West Africa reflects the well-known, but too often neglected, archaeological truism that researchers find what they are looking for and rarely more; the Iron Age emphasis in West Africa, and the Paleolithic-Epipaleolithic concentration in the francophone lands. Presumed general trends in these areas, particularly conclusions comparing development in North and West Africa, should be examined carefully for underlying sampling biases of an ideological as well as of a geographical nature.

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1 Willett, F., ‘A Survey of Recent Results in the Radiocarbon Chronology of Western and Northern Africa’, j. Afr. Hist., xii (1971), 339–70.

2 Flight, Colin, ‘A Survey of Recent Results in the Radiocarbon Chronology of Northern and Western Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., xiv (1973), 531–54.

3 Suess, H. E., ‘Bristlecone Pine Calibration of the Radiocarbon Time-scale 5200 B.C. to the Present’, in Olsson, I. U. (ed.), Radiocarbon Variations and Absolute Chronology (Stockholm, 1970).

4 For a detailed account of the effects of calibration on European archaeology and a discussion in general see Renfrew, Colin, Before Civilization (London, 1973).

5 For problems concerned with what an actual date means and the range of reliability see Derricourt, R. M., ‘Radiocarbon Chronology for Egypt and Africa’, J. Near Eastern St., xxx (1971), 271–92; and Clark, R. M. and Renfrew, C., ‘The Tree-ring Calibration of Radiocarbon Dates and the Chronology of Ancient Egypt’, Nature, ccxliii (1973), 266–70.

6 Flight, op. cit. 549–51.

7 Green, H. S., ‘Sudanese Radiocarbon Chronology: a provisional date list’, Nyame Akuma, vi (Calgary, 05 1975), 1024.

8 Flight, op. cit. 549.

9 For dates and the accompanying notes, which we have summarized, and those from the Central African Republic, we are grateful to Professor Nicholas David of Ibadan University. For a recent article on the Central African material see David, Nicholas, ‘The Central African Megaliths Project’, The Archaeologist, 11 (Ibadan, 05 1975), 3342.

10 Willett, op. cit. 353–4.

11 Vidal, P., La Civilisation mégalithique de Bouar (Paris, 1969) and review of same with dates for megaliths by de Bayle des Hermens, R., Africa, xlii (1972), 78–9.

12 Vidal, op. cit., former name in literature ‘Tajunu’.

13 de Bayle des Hermens, R. in unpublished Thèse de 3ieme Cycle, Recherches Préhistoriques en République Centrafricaine, 2 vols. (Mus. Nat. d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 1972), 179.

14 All the Ghana dates were obtained during work on the West African Trade Project financed by the Leverhulme Trust and all except those from Begho and Pepease appeared originally in ‘West African Trade Project: Report on Research in 1974’, ed. M. Posnansky (mimeograph, Legon). I am grateful to all the individual authors for the information from their site reports.

15 Shaw, C. T., Proc. Prehist. Soc., x (1944), 167.

16 A full report is contained in ‘Radiocarbon Dates from Bosumpra Cave, Abetifi, Ghana’, Proc. Prehist. Soc., xli (1975), 179–82.

17 Willett, op. cit. 352–3; and Rahtz, P. A. and Flight, Colin, ‘A Quern Factory near Kintampo, Ghana’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, iv (1974), 30.

18 York, R. N., ‘Excavations at New Buipe’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, iii (1973), 20.

19 Davies, , West Africa Before the Europeans (London, 1967), 238–9, in which a pre-eleventh century B.C. date for iron working was claimed.

20 Idem., Excavations at Ntereso, Gonja, Northern Ghana (Pietermaritzburg, 1973), 53.

21 Flight, op. cit. 548.

22 Bravmann, Rene A. and Mathewson, R. Duncan, ‘A note on the History and Archaeology of “Old Bima”’, Afr. Hist. St., iii (1970), 139.

23 Agorsah, E. K., ‘The Prehistory of the Pre-Iron Using Communities of the Begho area’, unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon. T. F. Garrard, personal communication.

24 Goody, J., ‘The Mande and the Akan Hinterland’, in The Historian in Tropical Africa, ed. Vansina, J., Mauny, R. and Thomas, L. V. (London, 1964), 193216.

25 Wilks, I., The Northern Factor in Ashanti History (Legon, 1961).

26 Flight, C., ‘The Chronology of the Kings and Queen-mothers of Bono Manso: A Re-evaluation of the evidence’. J. Afr. Hist., x (1970), 259–68, for a summary of the dating of the origin of the Bono State.

27 Effah-Gyamfi, E., ‘Oral Traditions and Archaeology: A Case Study of the Bono State’, unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, 1975.

28 Gif Natural Radiocarbon Measurements VIII’, Radiocarbon, xvi, 1 (1974), 77–9.

29 We are grateful to Professor Gabel for the information on Liberia. Full details of the survey are contained in Gabel, C., Borden, R. and White, S., ‘Preliminary Report on an archaeological survey of Liberia’, Liberian Studies Journal (in press), and Gabel, C., ‘Micro-lithic Occurrences in the Republic of Liberia’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, v (1975), in press.

30 W–2953 and W–2959 were obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey at sites also investigated by the Boston team.

31 For Guinea Neolithic see Davies 1967 op. cit. 190–216.

32 Alagoa, E. J., ‘Oral Tradition and Archaeology: The Case of Onyoma’, Oduma, 1 (1973), 1012, and Ke: The history of an old Delta Community’, Oduma, ii (1974), 410.

33 A very large number of new dates are anticipated from Nigeria from the Benue Plateau and the Zaria areas in particular but had not been received at the time of going to press.

34 ‘Excavations at Dutsen Kongba near Jos, Nigeria’, (Preliminary Notice by the staff of the Federal Antiquities Department), Nyame Akuma, iv (1974), 1720. We are extremely grateful to Mr Richard York for permission to quote from this article. A full report on this important research at Dutsen Kongba, details of the existing dates and a large number of further dates will be published shortly.

35 Eyo, E. O., ‘Rop Rock Shelter Excavations, 1964’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, ii (1972), 1316.

36 Fagg, Angela, ‘A Preliminary Report on an Occupation Site in the Nok Valley, Nigeria: Samun Dukiya, AF/70/1’, W. Ajr.J. Archaeology, 11 (1972), 75–9.

37 Ekpo Eyo, ‘Excavations at Odo Ogbe Street and Lafogido, Ife, Nigeria’, and Garlake, Peter, ‘Excavations at Obalara's land, Ife, Nigeria’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, iv (1974), 99109 and 111–48. We are extremely grateful to Mr Garlake for the Woye Asiri dates in advance of publication.

38 Garlake, op. cit. 125.

39 Willett, op. cit. 365–6.

40 Ibid. 366.

41 Radiocarbon, xvi (1974), 302.

42 We are indebted for these dates to Mr Fred N. Anozie presently at the University of Bordeaux. Background information is contained in his article ‘Archaeological Research in the Rivers State’, Oduma, 1 (1973), 4–9.

43 We are grateful to Professor Phillips Stevens, Jr., of Buffalo University for the information on Esie.

44 Dates and information kindly provided by Professor Breternitz in advance of publication of Rescue Archaeology in the Kainji Reservoir Area 1968’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, v (1975), in press. A previous paper by Wade, William D., ‘The Skeletal Biology of Human Remains from sites in the Lake Kainji Area of Nigeria’, appeared in the W. Afr. y. Archaeology, 1 (1971), 6185.

45 Modern means less than 100 years old.

46 We are extremely grateful to Professor J. E. G. Sutton of Ahmadu Bello University for the information on dates from the Zaria area.

47 Potocki, K., ‘The Kubanni Valley in the last two millennia’, Savanna, iii, no. 2 (12 1974), 209–13.

48 Cf. Camps, G., Delibrias, G. and Thommeret, J., ‘Chronologie des civilisations prghistoriques du nord de l'Afrique d'apres le radiocarbone’, Libyca, xxi (1973), 66–8, 83; and Camps, G.Tableau chronologique de la préhistoire récente du nord de l'Afrique’, Bull, de la Société Préhistorique Frarçaise, lxxi (1974), 261–78.

49 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 68.

50 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 70.

51 Campset al., 1973, op. cit. 71–6, 84–5.

52 Flight, op. cit. 540–1.

53 Aumassip, G. et al. , ‘Aperçu sur l'évolution du paysage quaternaire et le peuplement de la région de Ouargla’, Libyca, xx (1972), 223; cf. especially pp. 213–15 for an attempted ecological reconstruction.

54 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 85.

55 Readers will find of interest an article by Gilman, A., entitled, ‘Neolithic of northwest Africa’, Antiquity, xlviii (1974), 273–82; see also Aumassip et al., 1972, op. cit. 225–31; Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 77–82; Camps, 1974, op. cit. 269–72; Camps, G., ‘A propos du Néblithique ancien de la Méditerranée occidentale’, Bull, de la Société Préhistorique Française, lxviii (1971), 4850; and Maitre, J.-P., ‘Notes sur deux conceptions tradition-nelles du Néblithique saharien’, Libyca, xx (1972), 125–36.

56 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 89.

57 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 77–82, 88–9.

58 Thommeret, J. and Thommeret, Y., ‘Monaco radiocarbon measurements, IV’, Radiocarbon, xv (1973), 338.

59 Camps, et al, 1973, op. cit. 88–9.

60 Aumassip et al., 1972, op. cit. 225.

61 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 88.

62 Aumassip et al., 1972, op. cit. 229; and Aumassip, G., ‘Nouveau cas de stratification archéologique’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, iii (1973), 197206 (please note correction to Flight, op. cit. 541). We are particularly grateful to G. Aumassip for dates of various periods, supplied in a letter dated 7 June 1975.

63 Aumassip et al., 1972, op. cit. 230, 233.

64 Delibrias, G., Guillier, M. and Labeyrie, J., ‘Gif natural radiocarbon measurements VIII’, Radiocarbon, xvi (1974), 42.

65 Camps, 1974, op. cit. 269–70; cf. Maitre, op. cit. 125–36.

66 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 86.

67 Gabriel, B., ‘Steinplatze: Feuerstellen neolithisches Nomaden in der Sahara’, Libyca, xxi (1973), 157; for a description of B. Gabriel's work in the central Sahara, see ‘Libya’, section below.

68 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 86; Thommeret and Thommeret, op. cit. 330–40.

69 Gabriel, op. cit. 157.

70 Camps, G., ‘Âge du tombeau de Tin Hinan, ancêtre des Touareg du Hoggar’, Zephyrus, xxv (1974), 497518; we should also like to thank Professor Camps for correspondence pertaining to these dates.

71 Huard, P., ‘Influence culturelles transmises au Sahara tchadien par le Groupe C de Nubie’, Kush, xv (19671968), 120.

72 Cuscoy, L. D. and Galand, L., ‘Nouveaux documents des Iles Canaries’, L'Anthro-pologie, lxxix (1975), 537, at p. 27.

73 Wendorf, F., Said, R. and Schild, R., ‘Egyptian prehistory: some new concepts’, Science, clxix (1970), 1161–71, at pp. 1167, 1168; cf. Willett, op. cit. 347.

74 F. Wendorf, personal communication, for which we are very grateful (15 May 1975).

75 Caton-Thompson, G. and Whittle, E., ‘Thermoluminescence dating of the Badarian’, Antiquity, il (1975), 8997; cf. Whittle, E.Thermoluminescent dating of Egyptian pre-dynastic pottery from Hemamieh and Qurna-Tarif’, Archaeometry, xvii (1975), 119–22.

76 Cf. Derricourt, R. M., ‘Radiocarbon chronology for Egypt and North Africa’, J. of Near Eastern Studies, xxx (1971), 271–92; Edwards, I. E. S., ‘Absolute dating from Egyptian records and comparison with radiocarbon dating’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, cclxix (1970), 1118; and Libby, W. F., Radiocarbon Dating (Chicago, 1965), 78–9.

77 Fairservis, W. A., ‘Preliminary Report on the first two seasons at Hierakonopolis’, J. of the American Research Center in Egypt, ix (19711972), 727; cf. Hoffman, M. A., ‘The social context of trash disposal in an early dynastic Egyptian town’, American Antiquity, xxxix (1974), 3550.

78 Willett, op. cit. 340–3; Derricourt, op. cit.; Edwards, op. cit.; and Clark, R. M. and Renfrew, C., ‘Tree-ring calibration of radiocarbon dates and the chronology of ancient Egypt’, Nature, ccxliii (1973), 266–70.

79 Libby, op. cit. 77; Agrawal, D. P. and Kusumgar, S., ‘Tata Institute radiocarbon list XI’, Radiocarbon, xvii (1975). 221.

80 Nakhala, S. M. and Mohammed, F. M., ‘Cairo natural radiocarbon measurements I’, Radiocarbon, xvi (1974). 15.

81 Cockburn, A. et al. , ‘Autopsy of an Egyptian mummy’, Science, clxxxv (1975), 1155–60; cf. Bada, J. L. and Deems, L., ‘Accuracy of dates beyond the radiocarbon dating limit using the aspartic acid racemisation reaction’, Nature, cclv (1975), 218–19.

82 Sneh, A. and Weissbrod, T., ‘Nile delta: the defunct Pelusaic branch identified’, Science, clxxx (1973), 5961.

83 Camps, 1974, op. cit. 261–78: Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 65–89.

84 Willett, op. cit. 343–4; Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa IV’, J. Ajr. Hist., vii (1966), 495506.

85 Mori, F., ‘The earliest Saharan rock-engravings’, Antiquity, xlviii (1974), 8792.

86 Gabriel, op. cit. 151–68,157.

87 Huard, P., ‘Onze datations absolues pour la préhistoire et l'écologie ancienne du Nord-Tibesti et de la Libye méridionale’, C.R.S.M. (3) Bull, de la Société Préhistorique Française, lxx (1973), 70; cf. comments in section entitled ‘Tchad’.

88 Erlenkeuser, H. and Willkommen, H., ‘University of Kiel radiocarbon measurements VII’, Radiocarbon, xv (1973), 124–6.

89 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 89.

90 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 89.

91 Delibrias, et al., op. cit. 43.

92 Green, H. S., ‘Sudanese radiocarbon chronology: a provisional date list’, Nyame Akuma, vi (1975), 1024; cf. also Wendorf, F. (ed.), The Prehistory of Nubia (Dallas, 1968) and J. L. Shinner (ed.), The Prehistory and Geology of Northern Sudan (unpublished report submitted to the National Science Foundation, 1971).

93 Adamson, D., Clark, J. D. and Williams, M. A., ‘Barbed points from central Sudan and the age of the “Early Khartoum” tradition’, Nature, ccil (1974), 120–3; cf. Sutton, J. E. G., ‘The aquatic civilization of middle Africa’, J. Afr. Hist., xv (1974), 527–46.

94 D. Stiles, personal communication (5 June 1975), for which we are extremely grateful. The actual dates from Shabona are unpublished and as yet unobtainable.

95 Clark, J. D. and Stemler, A., ‘Early domesticated sorghum from central Sudan’, Nature, ccliv (1975), 588–94; we are also grateful to Professor Clark for his comments (10 July 1975).

96 Mukherjee, R., Rao, C., and Trevor, J. C., The Ancient Inhabitants of Jebel Moya, Sudan (Cambridge, 1955).

97 Green, op. cit. 21–2.

98 Green, loc. cit.

99 Delibrias, op. cit. 43.

100 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 88.

101 Diop, C. A., ‘Datations par la méthode du radiocarbone, Série II’, Bull, de 100000'I.F.A.N. (B), xxxiii (1971), 460.

102 Smith, A. B., ‘Preliminary report of excavation at Karkarinkat North and Karkarinkat South, Tilemsi Valley, République du Mali, Spring 1972’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, iv (1974), 3355. 52; cf. Smith, A. B., ‘Problems of pastoralism in the West African Sahel: an archaeological perspective’, Sankofa, i (1975), 41–4.

103 Diop, C. A., ‘Datations par la méthode du radiocarbone, Série I’, Bull, de 1'I.F.A.N. (B), xxxiii (1971), 451.

104 Diop, Série II, 1971, op. cit. 459.

105 Carbonnel, J.-P., ‘Structure et paléo-environnement d'un site Neéolithique Mauritanien: Ksar el Jmel (Tintane)’, Notes Africaines, cxxxvii (1973), 16.

106 Evin, J., Marien, G. and Pachiandi, Ch., ‘Lyon natural radiocarbon measurements V, Radiocarbon xvil (1975), 20–1.

107 Camps et al., 1973, op. cit. 87.

108 Carbonnel, J.-P. and Barbey, C., ‘Découverte de sépultures néolithiques dans le complex dunnaire du Draa Malichigdane’, Notes Africaines, cxxxvi (1972), 108–11.

109 Camps éet al., 1973, loc. cit.; Willett, op. cit. 345–7.

110 Diop, Série I, op. cit. 454; and Diop, C. A., ‘Datations par la méthode du radiocarbone, Série III’, Bull, de I'I.F.A.N. (B), xxxiv (1972), 691–2.

111 Diop, Série II, op. cit. 458–9; Diop, Série III, op. cit. 692–4.

112 Willett, op. cit. 348, and Flight, op. cit. 538.

113 Clark, J. D., ‘An archaeological survey of northern Aïr and Ténéré’, Geographical Journal, cxxxvii (1970), 457.

114 We should like to thank A. Smith for these comments.

115 Delibrias, et al., op. cit. 44.

116 Delibrias, et al., op. cit. 45.

117 Delibrias, et al., loc. cit.

118 Adamson, et al., op. cit. 120.

119 Diop, Série I, op. cit. 452.

120 Diop, Série III, op. cit. 695.

121 Delibrias, et al., loc. cit.

122 Cf. Lhote, H., ‘Recherches sur Takedda, ville décrite par le voyageur arabe Ibn Battouta, et située en Air’, Bull, de I' I.F.A.N. (B), xxxiv (1972), 429–70.

123 Delibrias, et al., op. cit. 45; cf. Lhote, loc. cit.

124 Lhote, H., ‘Découverte des ruines de Tadeliza: ancienne résidence des sultans de l'Aïr’, Notes Africainet, cxxxvii (1973), 916, 16.

125 we should like to thank J. Maley for this information and for his extensive comments; Quéckon, G. and Roset, J.-P., ‘Prospections archéologiques du massif de Termit (Niger)’, Cah. ORSTOM (série Sci. Hum.), xi (1974), 85104.

126 Diop, Série II, op. cit. 457; Diop, Série III, op. cit. 687; and Camps et at., 1973, op. cit. 87.

127 Diop, Série I, op. cit. 452.

128 Delibrias, et al., op. cit. 43.

129 Diop, Série III, op. cit. 688–90.

130 Descamps, C., Thilmans, G. and Thommeret, Y., ‘Données sur l'édification de l'amas coquillier de Dioron Boumak’, Association Sén–galaise pour l'Étude du Quaternaire Africain, Bulletin de Liaison, xli (1974), 6783.

131 Diop, Série III, op. cit. 690.

132 Thilmans, G. and Descamps, C., ‘Le site mégalithique de Tiekene-Boussoura (Sénégal), fouilles de 1973–1974’, Bull, de I' I.F.A.N. (B), xxxvi (1974), 447–95; C. Descamps, personal communication, for which we are extremely grateful.

133 Flight, op. cit. 537.

134 Huard, op. cit. 1973, 69–70: cf. Gabriel, B., ‘Zur Vorzeitfauna des Tibestigebirges’, in van Zinderen Bakker, E. M. (ed.). Palaeoecology of Africa, vi (Cape Town, 1972), 161–2, and B. Gabriel, ‘Terrassement-wicklung und vorgeschichtliche Umweltbedingungen im Enneri Dirennao, Tibesti’, Zeitung fur Geomorphologie, supplement 15 (1972), 113–18.

135 Huard, P., ‘Datation de squelettes Néolithiques, post-Néblithiques et préislamiques du Nord-Tibesti. C.R.S.M. (4) Bull, de la Société Préhistorique Française, lxx (1973), 100–2; cf. Hermann, B. and Gabriel, B., ‘Untersuchungen an vorgeschichtlischen Skeletten-material aus dem Tibesti Gebirge’, Berliner Geographischen Abhandlungen, xvi (1972), 143–52.

136 Scharpensel, H. W. and Pietig, F., ‘University of Bonn natural radiocarbon measurements VII’, Radiocarbon, xvi (1974), 162.

137 We should like to thank J.Maley for this information (1 Mar. 1975); cf. Flight, op. cit. 538; and Radiocarbon, xvi (1972), 294.

138 F. Treinen-Claustre, ‘La nécropole de Nemra’, W. Afr. J. Archaeology, v (in press). We should like to thank Y. Coppens for graciously providing this information; cf. Coppens, Y., ‘L'Époque Haddadienne: Une page de la protohistoire du Tchad’, Revista da Faculdade de Letras, Series III, ix (1965), 38, and Coppens, Y., ‘Les cultures proto-historiques du Djourab’, Actes du Premier Colloque International d'Archeologie Africaine (Fort-Lamy, 1969), 129–46. The early Iron Age dates appeared in Geyh, M. A. and Jakel, D., 1974, ‘14C-Altersbestimmungen in Rahmen der Forschungsarbeiten der Aussenstelle Bardai/Tibesti’, Pressedienst Wissenschaft FU Berlin, ii, 107–17.

139 Cf. Fagan, B. M., ‘Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa, List V, J. Afr. Hist., viii (1967), 515, and List vi (1969), 149; Willett, op. cit. 357–8, and Flight, op. cit. 552–3.

140 We should particularly like to thank Professor J.-P. Lebeuf for his long communication on these matters (16 May 1975).

141 Fagan, 1969, op. cit. 149–50; cf. Flight, op. cit. 553, note 80.

142 Thilmans and Descamps, op. cit.

143 F. A. Evans, ‘The Gambia's ancient monuments’, West Africa (March 1975), 327–8.

144 Diop, Série I, op. cit. 451.

145 We are extremely grateful to Dr Bassey W. Andah for these dates; those of Rim have not previously been published. For an account of our previous knowledge, see Mauny, R., ‘État actuel de nos connaissances sur la préhistoire et l'archéologie de la Haute Volta’, Notes Africaines, lxxiii (01 1957), 1625.

146 Diop, Série III, op. cit. 695.

147 Morel, J., ‘Nouvelles datations absolues de formations littorales et de gisements préhistoriquer de l'Est algérien’, C.R.S.M. (4) Bull. de la Société Préhistorique Française, lxx (1947), 103–4

148 J. Evin, G. Marien, and C. Pachiandi, op. cit. 13–16.

149 Diop, Série I, op. cit. 451.

150 Evin, et al., op. cit. 14.

151 Faure, H., Vieillefon, J. and Diop, C. A., ‘Évolution de la ligne de rivage Holocene en Casamance (Sud du Sénégal)’, Ass. Sénégal. Et. Quatern. Afr. Bull. Liaison, xlii–xliii (12 1974), 91–9.

152 Cf. Faure, H. and Elouard, P., ‘Schéma des variations du niveau de l'Océan Atlantique sur la côte de l'Afrique depuis 40,000 ans’, C. R. Acad. Sci., cclxv (1967), 784; and H. Faure and L. Hebrard , ‘Shoreline fluctuations in Senegal and Mauritania during Holocene times’, IX6, Intern. INQUA. Congr.

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