AghionP., Bloom N., Blundell R., Griffith R., and Howitt P.. “Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship.” Quarterly Journal of Economics
AghionP., and Griffith R.. Competition and Growth: Reconciling Theory and Evidence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
AlstonJ. “The Benefits from Agricultural Research and Development, Innovation, and Productivity Growth.” Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Papers, No. 31, Paris: OECD, 2010.
AlstonJ., Andersen M., James J., and Pardey P.. “The Economic Returns to U.S. Public Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
AlstonJ., Andersen M., James J., and Pardey P.. Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending. New York: Springer, 2010.
AlstonJ., Andersen M., and Pardey P.. “The Rise and Fall of U.S. Farm Productivity Growth, 1910–2007.” Staff paper P15-02, St. Paul: Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 2015.
AlstonJ., Beddow J., and Pardey P.. “Agricultural Research, Productivity, and Food Prices in the Long Run.” Science
AlstonJ., Bradford K., and Kalaitzandonakes N.. “The Economics of Horticultural Biotechnology.” Journal of Crop Improvement
AlstonJ., and Pardey P.. “Agriculture in the Global Economy.” Journal of Economic Perspectives
AlstonJ., and Pardey P.. Making Science Pay: The Economics of Agricultural R&D Policy. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1996.
AlstonJ., and Venner R.. “The Effects of the US Plant Variety Protection Act on Wheat Genetic Improvement.” Research Policy
AndersenM.A., Alston J.M., and Pardey P.G.. “Capital Services in U.S. Agriculture: Concepts, Comparisons, and the Treatment of Interest Rates.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
AndersenM.A., and Song W.. “The Economic Impact of Public Agricultural Research and Development in the United States.” Agricultural Economics
BabcockB., and Foster W.. “Measuring the Potential Contribution of Plant Breeding to Crop Yields: Flue-Cured Tobacco, 1954–87.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
BaldosU., and Hertel T.. “Global Food Security in 2050: The Role of Agricultural Productivity and Climate Change.” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics
BallE., Schimmelpfennig D., and Wang S.L.. “Is U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth Slowing?” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy
BallE., Wang S.L., Nehring R., and Mosheim R.. “Productivity and Economic Growth in U.S. Agriculture: A New Look?” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy
BeanC., Broda C., Ito T., and Kroszner R.. Low for Long? Cause and Consequences of Persistently Low Interest Rates. Geneva: International Center for Monetary and Banking Studies, Geneva Reports on the World Economy No. 17, 2015.
BeintemaN., Stads G., Fuglie K., and Heisey P.. ASTI Global Assessment of Agricultural R&D Spending. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2012.
BuccolaS., Ervin D., and Yang H.. “Research Choice and Finance in University Bioscience.” Southern Economics Journal
ButlerL., and Marion B.. The Impacts of Patent Protection on the U.S. Seed Industry and Public Plant Breeding. Madison: Research Division, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, North Central Regional Research Publication 304, 1985.
ByerleeD., and Fischer K.. “Accessing Modern Science: Policy and Institutional Options for Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries.” World Development
CarewR., and Devadoss S.. “Quantifying the Contribution of Plant Breeders’ Rights and Transgenic Varieties to Canola Yields: Evidence from Manitoba.” Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics
CarterT.E.Jr., Tracy W.F., Sinclair T.R., Isleib T.G., and Joost R.. “What Is the State of Public Cultivar Development?” Proceedings of the
Summit on Seeds and Breeds for 21st Century Agriculture, Washington, DC, March 5–7, 2014. Tracy W.F. and Sligh M., eds. Pittsboro, NC: Rural Advancement Foundation International, 2014, pp. 52–73.
ChambersR.G. “Thinking about Agricultural Productivity Accounting in the Presence of By-Products.” Paper presented at OECD Expert Workshop: Measuring Environmentally Adjusted Total Factor Productivity for Agriculture, Paris, France, December 14–15, 2015.
ChavasJ., and Cox T.. “A Nonparametric Analysis of the Influence of Research on Agricultural Productivity.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
Fifty Years of Empirical Studies of Innovative Activity and Performance.” Handbook of Economics of Innovation. Vol. 1. Hall B. and Rosenberg N., eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010, pp. 129–213.
ConnerJ.M. “Food Product Proliferation: A Market Structure Analysis.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
Council of Economic Advisors. Long-Term Interest Rates: A Survey. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President, 2015.
Agricultural Biotechnology: Background, Regulation, and Policy Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service, CRS Report 7-5700, 2015.
DasguptaP., and Stiglitz J.. “Industrial Structure and the Nature of Innovative Activity.” Economic Journal
DavidP.A., Hall B., and Toole A.. “Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence.” Research Policy
DrewJ., Yue C., Anderson N., and Pardey P.. “Premiums and Discounts for Plant Patents and Trademarks Used on Ornamental Plant Cultivars: A Hedonic Price Analysis.” HortScience
EvensonR.E. “Agriculture.” Government Support of Technological Progress: A Cross Industry Analysis. Nelson R., ed. New York: Pergamon Press, 1982, pp. 233–82.
FreyK. “A National Strategy for Plant Breeding in the United States.” Public-Private Collaboration in Agricultural Research. Fuglie K. and Schimmelpfennig D., eds. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 2000, pp. 77–98.
FuglieK. “Accounting for Growth in Global Agriculture.” Bio-based and Applied Economics
FuglieK. “The Growing Role of the Private Sector in Agricultural Research and Development World-Wide.” Global Food Security
FuglieK. “Is a Slowdown in Productivity Growth Contributing to the Rise in Commodity Prices?” Agricultural Economics
FuglieK., and Heisey P.. Economic Returns to Public Agricultural Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Brief No. 10, 2007.
FuglieK., Heisey P., King J., Pray C., Day-Rubenstein K., Schimmelpfennig D., Wang S.L., and Karmarkar-Deshmukh R.. Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agriculture Input and Biofuel Industries Worldwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Research Report No. 130, 2011.
FuglieK., and Nin-Pratt A.. “Agricultural Productivity: A Changing Global Harvest.” IFPRI 2012 Global Food Policy Report. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2013, pp. 15–28.
FuglieK., and Toole A.. “The Evolving Institutional Structure of Public and Private Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
FuglieK., and Walker T.. “Economic Incentives and Resource Allocation in U.S. Public and Private Plant Breeding.” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics
FuglieK., and Wang S. L.. “Productivity Growth in Global Agriculture Shifting to Developing Countries.” Choices
FuglieK., Wang S.L., and Ball E., eds. Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 2012.
GalizziG., and Venturini L., eds. Economics of Innovation: The Case of Food Industry. Heidelberg, Germany: Physica-Verlag, 1996.
American Agriculture in the Twentieth Century: How It Flourished and What It Cost. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
GardnerB., Durost D., Lin W., Lu Y.-C., Nelson G., and Whittlesey N.. Measurement of U.S. Agricultural Productivity: A Review of Current Statistics and Proposals for Change. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Technical Bulletin No. 1614, 1980.
GilbertR. “Competition and Innovation.” Journal of Industrial Organization Education 1,1(2006):8.
GilbertR. “Looking for Mr. Schumpeter: Where Are We in the Competition-Innovation Debate?” Innovation Policy and the Economy. Vol. 6. Jaffe A.B., Lerner J., and Stern S., eds. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006, pp. 159–215.
GollopF.M., and Swinand G.P.. “From Total Factor to Total Resource Productivity: An Application to Agriculture.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
GompersP., and Lerner L.. The Venture Capital Cycle. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
GraffG.D., Rausser G.C., and Small A.A.. “Agricultural Biotechnology's Complementary Intellectual Assets.” Review of Economics and Statistics
GrilichesZ. “Research Expenditures, Education, and the Aggregate Agricultural Production Function.” American Economic Review
HayesD.J., Lence S.H., and Goggi S.. “Impact of Intellectual Property Rights in the Seed Sector on Crop Yield Growth and Social Welfare: A Case Study Approach.” AgBioForum
HuffmanW., and Evenson R.. Science for Agriculture: A Long-Term Perspective. 1st ed.
Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993.
HuffmanW., and Evenson R.. Science for Agriculture: A Long-Term Perspective. 2nd ed.
Ames, IA: Blackwell, 2006.
HurleyT.M., Rao X., and Pardey P.G.. “Re-examining the Reported Rates of Return to Food and Agricultural Research and Development.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
International Federation for Animal Health (IFAH). IFAH Global Benchmarking Survey 2011. Paris: IFAH, 2011.
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) [database]. Internet site: https://www.asti.cgiar.org/ (Accessed March 2016).
JanisM., and Kesan J.. “U.S. Plant Variety Protection: Sound and Fury. . .?” Houston Law Review
JinY., and Huffman W.E.. “Measuring Public Agricultural Research and Extension and Estimating Their Impacts on Agricultural Productivity: New Insights from U.S. Evidence.” Agricultural Economics
JorgensonD.W., Ho M.S., and Samuels J.D.. “What Will Revive U.S. Economic Growth? Lessons from a Prototype Industry-Level Production Account for the United States.” Journal of Policy Modeling
KalaitzandonakesN., Alston J., and Bradford K.. “Compliance Costs for Regulatory Approval of New Biotech Crops.” Nature Biotechnology
KalaitzandonakesN., Magnier A., and Miller D.. “A Worrisome Crop: Is There Market Power in the U.S. Seed Industry?” Regulation
KingJ., Toole A., and Fuglie K.. The Complementary Roles of the Public and Private Sectors in U.S. Agricultural Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Brief No. 19, 2012.
KoladyD.E., and Lesser W.. “But Are They Meritorious? Genetic Productivity Gains under Plant Intellectual Property Rights.” Journal of Agricultural Economics
Valuation of Plant Variety Protection Certificates.” Review of Agricultural Economics
LippoldtD. “Innovation and the Experience with Agricultural Patents since 1990: Food for Thought.” Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Working Papers, No. 73, Paris: OECD, 2015.
MagnierA., Kalaitzandonakes N., and Miller D.J.. “Product Life Cycles and Innovation in the US Seed Corn Industry.” International Food and Agribusiness Management Review
MallaS., and Gray R.. “An Analytical and Empirical Analysis of the Private Biotech R&D Incentives.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Chicago, IL, August 5–9, 2001.
MallaS., Gray R., and Phillips P.. “Gains to Research in the Presence of Intellectual Property Rights and Research Subsidies.” Review of Agricultural Economics
MarcoA.C., and Rausser G.C.. “The Role of Patent Rights in Mergers: Consolidation in Plant Biotechnology.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
MoserP., and Rhode P.. “Did Plant Patents Create the American Rose?” National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Working Paper No. 16983, Cambridge, MA: NBER, 2011.
NaseemA., Oehmke J.F., and Schimmelpfennig D.E.. “Does Plant Variety Intellectual Property Protection Improve Farm Productivity? Evidence from Cotton Varieties.” AgBioForum
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2016.
National Research Council. A New Biology for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2009.
NaylorR.L., Falcon W.P., Goodman R.M., Jahn M.M., Sengooba T., Tefera H., and Nelson R.J.. “Biotechnology in the Developing World: A Case for Increased Investments in Orphan Crops.” Food Policy
NolanE., and Santos P.. “The Contribution of Genetic Modification to Changes in Corn Yield in the United States.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
OehmkeJ.F. “Re-examining the Reported Rates of Return to Food and Agricultural Research and Development: Comment.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
OllingerM., and Fernandez-Cornejo J.. Regulation, Innovation, and Market Structure in the U.S. Pesticide Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economics Report No. 719, 1995.
OllingerM., and Fernandez-Cornejo J.. “Sunk Costs and Regulation in the U.S. Pesticide Industry.” International Journal of Industrial Organization
PardeyP.G., Chan-Kang C., Beddow J.M., and Dehmer S.P.. “Long-Run and Global R&D Funding Trajectories: The U.S. Farm Bill in a Changing Context.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
PardeyP.G., Chan-Kang C., Dehmer S.P., and Beddow J.M.. “Agricultural R&D Is on the Move.” Nature
PerrinR., Kunnings K., and Ihnen L.. Some Effects of the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970. Raleigh: Department of Economics and Business, North Carolina State University, Economics Research Report No. 46, 1983.
McDougall Phillips. The Cost and Time Involved in the Discovery, Development and Authorisation of a New Plant Biotechnology Derived Trait. A Consultancy Study for CropLife International. Midlothian, UK: Phillips McDougall, 2011.
McDougall Phillips. The Cost of New Agrochemical Product Discovery, Development and Registration in 1995, 2000, 2005–8 and 2010 to 2014. A Consultancy Study for CropLife International, CropLife America, and the European Crop Protection Association. Midlothian, UK: Phillips McDougall, 2016.
PrayC., and Fuglie K.. “Agricultural Research by the Private Sector.” Annual Review of Resource Economics
President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Report to the President on Agricultural Preparedness and the Agricultural Research Enterprise. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President, 2012.
RuttanV.W. “Productivity Growth in World Agriculture: Sources and Constraints.” Journal of Economic Perspectives
SchimmelpfennigD.E., Pray C.E., and Brennan M.F.. “The Impact of Seed Industry Concentration on Innovation: A Study of US Biotech Market Leaders.” Agricultural Economics
SchneiderC. “The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology: Evidence from Opposition Fillings.” Journal of Technology Transfer
The Economic Organization of Agriculture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953.
ShumwayC.R., Fraumeni B.M., Fulginiti L.E., Samuels J.D., and Stefanou S.E.. “Measurement of U.S. Agricultural Productivity: A 2014 Review of Current Statistics and Proposals for Change.” Staff Paper Working Paper Series WP 2015-12, Pullman: School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University, 2015.
ShumwayC.R., Fraumeni B.M., Fulginiti L.E., Samuels J.D., and Stefanou S.E.. “U.S. Agricultural Productivity: A Review of USDA Economic Research Service Methods.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy
Sylak-GlassmanE., Clavin C., Klein E., Whelan R., Ressler A., and Hindman M.. “Examination of Plant Breeding at U.S. Academic Institutions and Private Companies in 2015.” Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) Paper P-5331, Washington, DC: IDA, 2016.
ThomsonR. “The Yield of Plant Variety Protection.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
TokgozS. “Private Agricultural R&D in the United States.” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics
TooleA.A. “Does Public Scientific Research Complement Private Investment in Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry?” Journal of Law and Economics
TraxlerG., Acquaye A.K.A., Frey K., and Thro A.M.. Public Sector Plant Breeding Resources in the US: Study Results for the Year 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute for Food and Agriculture, 2005.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector: Production and Efficiency Statistics, 1981. Washington, DC: USDA-ERS, ECIFS 1–3, 1983.
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. U.S. Patent Statistics Chart: Calendar Years 1963–2015. Arlington, VA: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 2016.
WangC., Xia Y., and Buccola S.. “Public Investment and Industry Incentives in Life-Science Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
WangS.L., Ball V.E., Fulginiti L.E., and Plastina A.. “Accounting for the Impact of Local and Spill-in Public Research, Extension and Roads on US Regional Agricultural Productivity, 1980–2004.” Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective. Fuglie K.O., Wang S.L., and Ball V.E., eds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 2012, pp. 13–32.
WangS.L., Heisey P.W., Huffman W.E., and Fuglie K.O.. “Public R&D, Private R&D, and U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth: Dynamic and Long-Run Relationships.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics
WangS.L., Heisey P., Schimmelpfennig D., and Ball E.. Agricultural Productivity Growth in the United States: Measurement, Trends, and Drivers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Research Report No. 189, 2015.
WangS.L., Schimmelpfennig D., and Fuglie K.O.. “Is Agricultural Productivity Growth Slowing in Western Europe?” Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective. Fuglie K.O., Wang S.L., and Ball V.E., eds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 2012, pp. 109–26.