Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effects of temperature, wind speed and air humidity on ammonia volatilization from surface applied cattle slurry

  • S. G. Sommer (a1), J. E. Olesen (a2) and B. T. Christensen (a1)
Abstract
SUMMARY

Ammonia losses from surface-applied cattle slurry were measured under field conditions using a wind tunnel system that allows variables affecting ammonia loss to be examined under controlled conditions. The experiments were carried out on a sandy soil with seven different surface covers. This report considers the effect of wind speed, temperature and water vapour deficit on the ammonia loss over a series of 6-day periods. During October 1986 to November 1989 42 treatments were examined, using slurries taken from the same slurry tank to provide slurries of similar chemical composition.

When temperatures were near zero, the rate of ammonia loss was generally low. The accumulated loss over 6 days was high, however, because the rate of loss was constant throughout the period. In these experiments the soil was saturated with water and partly frozen, and the infiltration of slurry into the soil reduced. At 19 °C initial loss rates were high but, after 12 h, almost no further loss occurred. Apart from these extremes, the ammonia loss rates within the initial 24 h were significantly affected by temperature and wind speed.

Ammonia volatilization after 6 h was exponentially related to temperature (r2 = 0·841) but the correlation weakened with time after slurry application. An increase in ammonia volatilization with increasing water vapour pressure deficit was considered to be an effect of temperature.

The ammonia loss rate increased when wind speeds increased up to 2·5 m/s. No consistent increase in ammonia volatilization was found when the wind speed increased from 2·5 to 4 m/s. Ammonia loss after 24 h increased with increasing initial pH of the slurry.

A two-stage pattern for ammonia volatilization from slurry is proposed. During the first stage (the initial 24 h) ammonia loss rate is high due to an elevated pH at the slurry surface followingv application, and temperature significantly affects the loss rate. In the next stage, pH declines and the rate of ammonia volatilization decreases. During this stage other factors, including the dry matter content of the slurry, control the rate of ammonia loss.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. A. Allen , R. M. Harrison & M. T. Wake (1988). A meso-scale study of the behaviour of atmospheric ammonia and ammonium. Atmospheric Environment 22, 13471353.

E. G. Beauchamp , G. E. Kidd & G. Thurtell (1978). Ammonia volatilization from sewage sludge applied in the field. Journal of Environmental Quality 7, 141146.

E. G. Beauchamp , G. E. Kidd & G. Thurtell (1982). Ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy cattle manure in the field. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 62, 1119.

D. Beutier & H. Renon (1978). Representation of NH3- H2S-H2O, NH3-CO2-H2O, and NH3-SO2-H2O Vapor- Liquid equilibria. Industrial Engineering Chemical Process Design Development 17, 220230.

R. Brunke , P. Alvo , P. Schuepp & R. Gordon (1988). Effect of meteorological parameters on ammonia loss from manure in the field. Journal of Environmental Quality 17, 431436.

E. Buusman , H. F. M. Maas & W. A. H. Asman (1987). Antropogenic NH3 emissions in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 21, 10091022.

W. C. Donovan & T. J. Logan (1983). Factors affecting ammonia volatilization from sewage sludge applied to soil in a laboratory study. Journal of Environmental Quality 12, 584590.

D. A. Lauer , D. R. Bouldin & S. D. Klausner (1976). Ammonia volatilization from dairy manure spread on the soil surface. Journal of Environmental Quality 5, 134141.

D. R. Lockyer (1984). A system for the measurement in the field of losses of ammonia through volatilization. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 35, 837848.

B.F. Pain , V. R. Phillips , C. R. Clarkson & J. V. Klarenbeek (1989). Loss of nitrogen through ammonia volatilization during and following the application of pig or cattle slurry to grassland. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 47, 1—12.

Rachpal-Singh & P. H. Nye (1986). A model of ammonia volatilization from applied urea. I. Development of the model. Journal of Soil Science 37, 920.

J. G. M. Roelofs (1986). The effect of airborne sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial heathland vegetation. Experientia 42, 372377.

J. C. Ryden & D. R. Lockyer (1985). Evaluation of a system of wind tunnels for field studies of ammonia loss from grassland through volatilization. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 36, 781788.

R. R. Sherlock & K. M. Goh (1985). Dynamics of ammonia volatilization from simulated urine patches and aqueous urea applied to pasture. III. Field verification of a simplified model. Fertilizer Research 6, 2336.

R. B. Thompson , J. C. Ryden & D. R. Lockyer (1987). Fate of nitrogen in cattle slurry following surface application or injection to grassland. Journal of Soil Science 38, 689700.

P. L. G. Vlek & E. T. Craswell (1981). Ammonia volatilization from flooded soils. Fertilizer Research 2, 227245.

P. L. G. Vlek & J. M. Stumpe (1978). Effects of solution chemistry and environmental conditions on ammonia volatilization losses from aqueous systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 42, 416421.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×