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Borgogno, Monica Corazzin, Mirco Saccà, Elena Bovolenta, Stefano and Piasentier, Edi 2015. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon. Meat Science, Vol. 106, p. 69.
Howes, Natalie L. Bekhit, Alaa El-Din Ahmed Burritt, David J. and Campbell, Anna W. 2015. Opportunities and Implications of Pasture-Based Lamb Fattening to Enhance the Long-Chain Fatty Acid Composition in Meat. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 22.
Pellattiero, E. Cecchinato, A. Tagliapietra, F. Schiavon, S. and Bittante, G. 2015. The use of 2-dimensional gas chromatography to investigate the effect of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid, breed, and lactation stage on the fatty acid profile of sheep milk. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 98, Issue. 4, p. 2088.
Pellattiero, Erika Cecchinato, Alessio Tagliapietra, Franco Schiavon, Stefano and Bittante, Giovanni 2015. Determination by GC×GC of Fatty Acid and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomer Profiles in Six Selected Tissues of Lambs Fed on Pasture or on Indoor Diets with and without Rumen-Protected CLA. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 63, Issue. 3, p. 963.
Sun, H.X. Zhong, R.Z. Liu, H.W. Wang, M.L. Sun, J.Y. and Zhou, D.W. 2015. Meat quality, fatty acid composition of tissue and gastrointestinal content, and antioxidant status of lamb fed seed of a halophyte (Suaeda glauca). Meat Science, Vol. 100, p. 10.
Daza, Argimiro Rey, Ana Isabel Lopez-Carrasco, Celia and Lopez-Bote, Clemente J. 2014. Influence of feeding system on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves’ breed. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 409.
Mele, M. Serra, A. Pauselli, M. Luciano, G. Lanza, M. Pennisi, P. Conte, G. Taticchi, A. Esposto, S. and Morbidini, L. 2014. The use of stoned olive cake and rolled linseed in the diet of intensively reared lambs: effect on the intramuscular fatty-acid composition. animal, Vol. 8, Issue. 01, p. 152.
Ponnampalam, Eric N. Butler, Kym L. Pearce, Kelly M. Mortimer, Suzanne I. Pethick, David W. Ball, Alex J. and Hopkins, David L. 2014. Sources of variation of health claimable long chain omega-3 fatty acids in meat from Australian lamb slaughtered at similar weights. Meat Science, Vol. 96, Issue. 2, p. 1095.
Atti, Naziha Methlouthi, Nejib Saidi, Cherifa and Mahouachi, Mokhtar 2013. Effects of extruded linseed on muscle physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of lambs. Journal of Applied Animal Research, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 404.
Ebrahimi, M. Rajion, M. A. Goh, Y. M. Sazili, A. Q. and Schonewille, J. T. 2013. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2013, p. 1.
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Bernes, G. Turner, T. and Pickova, J. 2012. Sheep fed only silage or silage supplemented with concentrates. Small Ruminant Research, Vol. 102, Issue. 2-3, p. 114.
Berthelot, V. Bas, P. Pottier, E. and Normand, J. 2012. The effect of maternal linseed supplementation and/or lamb linseed supplementation on muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition of indoor lambs. Meat Science, Vol. 90, Issue. 3, p. 548.
Jerónimo, Eliana Alfaia, Cristina M.M. Alves, Susana P. Dentinho, Maria T.P. Prates, José A.M. Vasta, Valentina Santos-Silva, José and Bessa, Rui J.B. 2012. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality. Meat Science, Vol. 92, Issue. 4, p. 841.
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Moloney, A.P. 2011. Reducing Saturated Fats in Foods.
Sheep meat is characterized as being high in saturated fatty acids and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), attributes that are regarded as being disadvantageous within the human diet. Despite fresh forage being a particularly rich source of 18:3n−3 and vegetable oils being high in 18:2n−6 and 18:3n−3, the process of biohydrogenation in the rumen generally results in proportionally less than 0·1 of these essential dietary fatty acids (FA) reaching the small intestine. Increases in muscle content of 18:3n−3 of 1–2-fold have been achieved by supplementation with oil, or oilseeds, whilst increases of 1–3-fold have been obtained from grazing grass compared with concentrates, but in general the polyunsaturated to saturated FA ratio (P:S) in sheep meat has remained low at approximately 0·2–0·3. Substantial improvements in the P:S ratio of up to 0·57 and increases in muscle and adipose tissue levels of 18:3n−3 of up to 4 g/100 g FA can be obtained, but rely on protecting dietary PUFA from biohydrogenation. Additionally, increasing tissue supply of 18:3n−3 will result in only a small improvement in muscle concentration of the nutritionally beneficial 20:5n−3 and 22:6n−3, with meaningful increases relying on a dietary supply of these very-long-chain PUFA. An alternative strategy to improve the human health attributes of sheep meat is to decrease tissue levels of 18:0 by increasing the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), although the response is often relatively small. Despite the apparent negative impact of ruminal metabolism on muscle FA content, the process of biohydrogenation is often incomplete and several of the intermediaries can have positive effects on human health. Within these intermediaries, future increases in tissue content of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be obtained by increasing tissue supply directly, although a greater response may be obtained by maximizing tissue supply of trans-11 18:1 and elevating the action of SCD. Production of a FA profile in sheep meat that is higher in PUFA, particularly the advantageous very-long-chain PUFA, and with flavour and eating characteristics that meet specific market preferences, is a suitable area for research.
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