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    Soriano, A. Cruz, B. Gómez, L. Mariscal, C. and García Ruiz, A. 2006. Proteolysis, physicochemical characteristics and free fatty acid composition of dry sausages made with deer (Cervus elaphus) or wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat: A preliminary study. Food Chemistry, Vol. 96, Issue. 2, p. 173.

    Vásquez, C. G. Olvera, L. Siqueiros, Y. Kuri, M. L. Navarro, V. A. Rovelo, A. E. and Shimada, A. 2004. Nursing and feeding behaviour of confined red deer(cervus elaphus scoticus)in the Mexican highlands∗. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Stafford, Kevin J. 1997. The diet and trace element status of sambar deer (Cervus unicoloi) in Manawatu district, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 267.

    Semiadi, G. Holmes, C. W. Barry, T. N. and Muir, P. D. 1996. Effects of cold conditions on heat production by young sambar ( Cervus unicolor) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 126, Issue. 02, p. 221.

    Semiadil, G. Barry, T. N. and Muir, P. D. 1995. Comparison of seasonal patterns of growth, voluntary feed intake and plasma hormone concentrations in young sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 125, Issue. 01, p. 109.

    Semiadi, G. Barry, T. N. Stafford, K. J. Muir, P. D. and Reid, C. S. W. 1994. Comparison of digestive and chewing efficiency and time spent eating and ruminating in sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 123, Issue. 01, p. 89.


Growth, milk intake and behaviour of artificially reared sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)and red deer(Cervus elaphus) fawns

  • G. Semiadi (a1) (a2), T. N. Barry (a2) and P. D. Muir (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2009

Sambar deer (n = 8) and red deer (n = 8) fawns were successfully artificially reared to 70 days of age, using ewe milk replacer, at Flock House Agricultural Centre, New Zealand, during 1991. Sambar deer fawns had a lower overall milk consumption than red deer fawns (312 v. 359 g DM/day; P < 0·05), and showed an earlier peak in milk consumption, a faster rate of decline and earlier self weaning. Birth weight as a proportion of dam liveweight was lower for sambar than for red deer, but liveweight gains to weaning (347 v. 330 g/day) and 70 day weaning weights (300 v. 30·4 kg) were similar. The age at which deer commenced a range of activities, including eating forage and ruminating, was similar for both species, except that jumping activities commenced 5 days later in sambar than in red deer (P < 0·01). Following milk feeding, sambar fawns were less active than red deer fawns. It was concluded that sambar deer fawns can be successfully artificially reared using ewe milk replacer, but that extra precautions are needed to avoid scouring and abomasal bloat, which were more prevalent in sambar than in red deer fawns.

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