Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Acosta, A. Boudon, A. and Peyraud, J.-L. 2007. Species and variety of herbage affects release of cell contents during ingestive mastication in dairy cows fed indoors. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 132, Issue. 1-2, p. 28.

    Munyard, K.A. and Baker, S.K. 2006. Size fractionation of a rumen microbial population by counter-flow centrifugal elutriation. Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 67, Issue. 3, p. 566.

    Min, B R Attwood, G T Reilly, K Sun, W Peters, J S Barry, T N and McNabb, W C 2002. Lotus corniculatuscondensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 48, Issue. 10, p. 911.

    Molan, A L Attwood, G T Min, B R and McNabb, W C 2001. The effect of condensed tannins fromLotus pedunculatusandLotus corniculatuson the growth of proteolytic rumen bacteria in vitro and their possible mode of action. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 47, Issue. 7, p. 626.

    Aerts, Robert J McNabb, Warren C Molan, Abdul Brand, Andr� Barry, Tom N and Peters, Jason S 1999. Condensed tannins fromLotus corniculatus andLotus pedunculatus exert different effects on thein vitro rumen degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) protein. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 79, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    Mcnabb, W. C. Waghorn, G. C. Peters, J. S. and Barry, T. N. 1996. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the solubilization and degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (EC; Rubisco) protein in the rumen and the sites of Rubisco digestion. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 76, Issue. 04, p. 535.

    Peltekova, V.D. and Broderick, G.A. 1996. In Vitro Ruminal Degradation and Synthesis of Protein on Fractions Extracted from Alfalfa Hay and Silage. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 79, Issue. 4, p. 612.

    Sommer, A. Čerešnáková, Z. Szakács, J. and Chrenková, M. 1995. Digestibility of in rumen undergraded crude protein of treated protein feeds in postruminal part of digestive tract of ruminants. Archiv für Tierernaehrung, Vol. 48, Issue. 1-2, p. 173.

    CHIY, P. C. and PHILLIPS, C. J. C. 1993. Sodium fertilizer application to pasture. 4. Effects on mineral uptake and the sodium and potassium status of steers. Grass and Forage Science, Vol. 48, Issue. 3, p. 260.

    Mangan, J.L. Harrison, F.A. and Vetter, R.L. 1991. Immunoreactive Fraction 1 Leaf Protein and Dry Matter Content During Wilting and Ensiling of Ryegrass and Alfalfa. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 74, Issue. 7, p. 2186.

    Kung, L. Craig, W.M. Satter, L.D. and Broderick, G.A. 1986. Effect of Adding Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde, or Dimethylolurea to Alfalfa before Ensiling. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 69, Issue. 11, p. 2846.

    Kemp, P. Jordan, D. J. and Orpin, C. G. 1985. The free- and protein-amino acids of the rumen phycomycete fungi Neocallimastix frontalis and Piromonas communis. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 105, Issue. 03, p. 523.

    Coleman, G.S. 1983. Hydrolysis of Fraction 1 leaf protein and casein by rumen entodiniomorphid protozoa. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 111.

    Hazlewood, Geoffrey P. Horsnell, Jane M. and Mangan, James L. 1983. Trypsin isoinhibitors of lucerne: Association with leaf fraction 1 protein. Phytochemistry, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 1107.

    Nugent, J. H. A. Jones, W. T. Jordan, D. J. and Mangan, J. L. 1983. Rates of proteolysis in the rumen of the soluble proteins casein, Fraction I (18S) leaf protein, bovine serum albumin and bovine submaxillary mucoprotein. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 50, Issue. 02, p. 357.

    Nugent, J. H. A. and Mangan, J. L. 1981. Characteristics of the rumen proteolysis of fraction I (18S) leaf protein from lucerne (Medicago sativa L). British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 46, Issue. 01, p. 39.

    Demeyer, D. I. and Van Nevel, C. J. 1980. Nitrogen exchanges in the rumen. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 39, Issue. 01, p. 89.

    Mangan, J. L. Jordan, D. J. West, Janet and Webb, P. J. 1980. Protection of leaf protein of lucerne ( Medicago sativa L.) against degradation in the rumen by treatment with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 03, p. 603.


Ruminal digestion of chloroplasts and the protection of protein by glutaraldehyde treatment

  • J. L. Mangan (a1) and Janet West (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2009

Chloroplasts, 50–80% intact, were prepared from kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Marrowstem) by rapid homogenization (3·5 sec) of deveined leaves into partially frozen buffer pH 7·4 made 0·4 M with sucrose, and separated by differential centrifugation. Chloroplasts from 10 kg leaves were administered to the rumen of a sheep and the degradation followed by analysis of the rumen fluid which was collected continuously. Particulate matter of the rumen fluid was separated on discontinuous sucrose density gradients, 8 ml each of 35, 46, 50, 65 and 75% (w/v), centrifuging at 300 g for 1 h at + 2 °C. Chloroplasts were rapidly ingested by entodiniomorphid protozoa and digested with no detectable increase in soluble nitrogen in the rumen fluid. No net production of ammonia occurred but δ-amino-valeric acid increased indicating that amino acid transformations had occurred. Chlorophyll in the ingested chloroplasts was rapidly degraded with a half-life of 50–60 min. In contrast a similar amount of soluble casein added to the rumen degraded with a half-life of 13–14 min with large increase in soluble nitrogen consisting of peptides, amino acids, ammonia and δ-amino-valeric acid. Glutaraldehyde treated chloroplasts were also ingested by protozoa, chlorophyll was rapidly degraded but there was no increase in the soluble nitrogen of the rumen fluid, including ammonia and δ-amino-valeric acid. Water disrupted chloroplasts released soluble protein and in the rumen behaved like casein, producing high proportions of ammonia and δ-amino-valeric acid. The significance of these experiments in the protection of soluble leaf protein from degradation in the rumen of pasture-fed animals is discussed.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. I. Arnon (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology 24, 115.

G. S. Coleman (1964). The metabolism of Escherichia coli and other bacteria by Entodinium caudatum. Journal of General Microbiology 37, 209–23.

G. S. Coleman (1967). The metabolism of the amino acids of Escherichia coli and other bacteria by the rumen ciliate Entodinium caudatum. Journal of General Microbiology 47, 449–64.

D. N. Croft & M. Lubran (1965). The estimation of deoxyribonucleio acid in the presence of sialic acid: application to analysis of human gastric washings. Biochemical Journal 95, 612–20.

F. J. Hall , J. West & G. S. Coleman (1974). Fine structural studies on the digestion of chloroplasts in the rumen ciliate Entodinium caudatum. Tissue and Cell 6, 243–53.

E. I. McDougall (1948). Studies on ruminant saliva. I. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochemical Journal 43, 99109.

F. B. Stifel , R. L. Vetter , R. S. Allen & H. T. Horner (1968). Chemical and ultrastructural relationships between alfalfa leaf chloroplasts and bloat. Phytochemistry 7, 355–64.

J. West & J. L. Mangan (1970). Effects of glutaraldehyde on the protein loss and photochemical properties of kale chloroplasts: preliminary studies on food conversion. Nature 228, 466–8.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Agricultural Science
  • ISSN: 0021-8596
  • EISSN: 1469-5146
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *