Published online by Cambridge University Press: 23 March 2011
Modernization is a word that has been widely and rather loosely used for some time to characterize the fundamental changes that have been taking place during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries among non-Western peoples. It was first used in this sense to describe developments in Japan, China and Turkey, but with the multiplication of newly independent nations in Asia and Africa since World War II die term has been applied to them, also.
2 Ibid., p. 31. These lists are to be found in a long footnote on pp. 20–23 of Professor Hall's chapter.
3 Ibid., pp. 19, 27. I have changed Professor Hall's numbering by inserting as number 4 an eighth characteristic added after initial agreement had been reached on a list of seven. At the suggestion of Shûichi Katô this “working summation of the ‘modern’ elements of a society” came to be called a “syndrome of symptoms,” to indicate their interrelationship.