Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Controlling the Kanjisphere: The Rise of the Sino-Japanese Typewriter and the Birth of CJK

  • Thomas S. Mullaney

Abstract

Japan has been home to two distinct approaches to typewriting, the first oriented exclusively towards the typing of kana and the second oriented towards kanji. In look and feel, this first family of machines was indistinguishable from those built by Remington, Underwood, or Olivetti. The second, however, was indistinguishable from typewriters already being produced in China: tray bed machines featuring approximately 2,500 of the most commonly used characters. In part because of this Janus-faced approach to the typewriter, Japanese companies succeeded in penetrating the Chinese information technology market where Western manufacturers had failed, making inroads as early as the 1920s. With the expansion of empire-building in 1931, and the outbreak of war in 1937, Japan came to dominate the entire Chinese typewriter market. In giving rise to the Japanese-built Chinese typewriter, this historic period also gave shape to what is now understood within information technology circles as CJK: the distinct Chinese-Japanese-Korean technolinguistic zone.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Adal, Raja. 2011. “The Flower of the Office: The Social Life of the Japanese Typewriter in Its First Decade.” Presentation at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, March 31–April 3.
Arnold, David. 2013. Everyday Technology: Machines and the Making of India's Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Asahi shinbun . 1938. “Tenshin no ‘Aikoku Roku Josei’” 天津の愛国六女性 [The “Six Patriotic Women” of Tianjin]. February 5, 10.
Asahi shinbun . 1939. “Taipisuto toshite nanyō e” タイピストとして南洋へ [Heading to the South Seas as a typist]. August 24, E6.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1938a. “Beijing Dongya Huawen dazi zhiye xuexiao guanyu chuangban xuexiao qing li'an de chengji shi jiaoyuju de zhiling (fu: zhijiao yuan lüli biao, xuesheng mingji biao)” 北京東亞華文打字職業學校關於創辦學校請立案的呈及市教育局的指令 (附: 職教員履歷表、學生名籍表) [Beijing Dongya Typing Vocational School]. September 9. BMAJ004-002-00559.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1938b. “Beijing shi sili Baoshan, Guangde Huawen dazi buxi xuexiao guanyu xuexiao tianban qiyong qianji baosong li'an biao jiaozhiyuan lüli biao he xuesheng mingji chengji biao chengwen ji shi jiaoyuju de zhiling (fu: gaixiao jianzhang, zhaosheng jianzhang he xuesheng chengji biao” 北京市私立寶善、廣德華文打字補習學校關於學校天辦啟用鈐記報送立案表教職員履歷表和學生名籍成績表呈文及市教育局的指令 (附:該校簡章、招生簡章和學生成績表 [Beijing Baoshan and Guangde Chinese Typing Supplementary Schools]. July 1. BMAJ004-002-00579.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1938c. “Guanyu chuangban Beijing shi sili Guangdewen dazi buxi xueshe de chengwen ji gai she jianzhang deng yiji shehui ju de piwen.” 關於創辦北京市私立廣德文打字補習學社的呈文及該社簡章等以及社會局的批文 [Regarding the foundation of the Guangdewen Typing Supplementary School in Beijing]. May 1. BMAJ002-003-00754.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1939a. “Beijing shi sili Jiyang Huawen dazi buxi xuexiao zhanxing tingban gei Beijing tebieshi jiaoyuju de chengji jiaoyuju de zhiling” 北京市私立暨陽華文打字補習學校暫行停辦給北京特別市教育局的呈及教育局的指令. [Beijing Jiyang Typing School temporarily ceases operation]. January 1. BMAJ002-003-00636.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1939b. “Beijing shi sili Yucai Huawen dazike zhiye buxi xuexiao zhi jiaoyuan lüli biao” 北京市私立育才華文打字科職業補習學校職教員履歷表 [Curriculum vitae of teaching staff of the private Yucai Chinese Typing Vocational Supplemental School in Beijing] and “Beijing shi sili Guangde buxi xuexiao xuesheng mingji biao” 北京市私立廣德補習學校學生名籍表 [Student roster of the private Guangde Supplemental School in Beijing]. In “Beijing shi sili Yucai Huawen dazike zhiye buxi xuexiao zhiejiaoyuan lüli biao, xuesheng mingji biao” 北京市私立育才華文打字科職業補習學校職教員履歷表、學生名籍表 [Curriculum vitae of teaching staff and student roster of the private Yucai Chinese Typing Vocational Supplemental School in Beijing]. July 31. BMAJ004-002-00662.
BMA (Beijing Municipal Archives). 1943. “Beijing shi sili Yadong Ri Huawen dazi buxi xuexiao guanyu di'shiliu qi putong sucheng ge zu xuesheng chengjibiao, kecheng yuji ji shouke shi shu qing jianhe gei Beijing tebieshi jiaoyuju de cheng yiji jiaoyuju de zhiling” 北京市私立亞東日華文打字補習學校關於第十六期普通速成各組學生成績表、課程預計及授課時數請鑒核給北京特別市教育局的呈以及教育局的指令 [Petition submitted by the private Yadong Japanese-Chinese Typing Supplementary School of Beijing to the Beijing Special Municipality Bureau of Education regarding inspection of student grading list, curriculum plan, and teaching hours for the regular-speed division of the sixteenth term, and the order received in response from the Bureau of Education]. January 31. BMAJ004-002-01022.
Boyfriend . 1932. “Swimming Expert Yu Binqi.” Reverse cover.
Brooks, Timothy. 2007. Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Coble, Parks. 2003. Chinese Capitalists in Japan's New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fogel, Joshua. 2009. Articulating the Sinosphere: Sino-Japanese Relations in Space and Time. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Frazier, Mark. 2006. The Making of the Chinese Industrial Workplace: State, Revolution, and Labor Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gailiang Shu shi Huawen daziji shuomingshu 改良舒式華文打字機說明書 [Improved Shu Zhendong style Chinese typewriter manual]. 1938. Shanghai: Shangwu yinshu guan. University of Pennsylvania Archives, W. Norman Brown Papers (UPT 50 B879). Box 10, Folder 5.
Gerth, Karl. 2003. China Made: Consumer Culture and the Creation of the Nation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center.
Gordon, Andrew. 2011. Fabricating Consumers: The Sewing Machine in Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hagley Museum and Library. 1905. “Japanese Katakana – Keyboard no. 175 for No. 9 Model” (Date of First Usage: July 28, 1905 in New York). Remington Rand Corporation. Records of the Advertising and Sales Promotion Department. Series I Typewriter Div. Subseries B Remington Typewriter Company. Box 3, Volume 1. Accession 1825.
Hagley Museum and Library. 1906. Dave Sheridan. “Memo to Sales Staff regarding Remington Japanese Typewriter.” Remington Rand Corporation. Records of the Advertising and Sales Promotion Department. Series I Typewriter Div. Subseries B Remington Typewriter Company. Box 3, Folder 6, “Keyboards and Typestyles – Correspondence, 1906.” Accession 1825.
Howland, Douglas. 1996. Borders of Chinese Civilization: Geography and History at Empire's End. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Hunter, Janet. 2011. “Technology Transfer and the Gendering of Communications Work: Meiji Japan in Comparative Historical Perspective.” Social Science Japan Journal 14(1):120.
Inoue, Miyako. 2011. “Stenography and Ventriloquism in Late Nineteenth Century Japan.” Language and Communication 31(3):181–90.
Jacobowitz, Seth. 2016. Writing Technology in Meiji Japan: A Media History of Modern Japanese Literature and Visual Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center.
Robert McKean, Jones. 1928. “Typewriting Machine.” United States Patent Document 1687939. Filed May 19, 1927. Patented October 16, 1928. Assignor to Remington Company.
Sugimoto, Kyota. 1917. “Type-Writer.” United States Patent Document 1245633. Filed November 7, 1916. Patented November 6, 1917.
Xianyan, Li 李獻延, ed. c. 1932. Zuixin gongwen chengshi 最新公文程式 [Newest stationery forms]. Xinjing: Fengtian Typing Institute.
Maclachlan, Patricia L. 2012. The People's Post Office: The History and Politics of the Japanese Postal System, 1871–2010. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center.
Minsheng Daziji Zhizaochang 民生打字機製造廠 [People's Welfare Typewriter Manufacturing Company], ed. c. 1940s. Lianxi keben 練習課本 [Practice textbook]. n.p., cover.
Torao, Morita 森田虎雄. 1934. Hōbun taipuraitā kyōkasho 邦文タイプライター教科書 [Japanese typewriter textbook]. Tokyo: Tokyo Women's Foreign Language School.
Mullaney, Thomas S. 2014. “Semiotic Sovereignty: The 1871 Chinese Telegraph Code in Global Historical Perspective.” In Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880s–1940s, eds. Tsu, Jing and Elman, Benjamin A., 153–83. Leiden: Brill.
Mullaney, Thomas S. Forthcoming. The Chinese Typewriter: A Global History of the Information Age, Part I. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Nippon Typewriter Company [日本イプライター株式会社], ed. 1917. Hōbun taipuraitā-yō moji no sakuin 邦文タイプライター用文字の索引 [Character index for Japanese typewriter]. Tokyo: n.p.
Nippon Typewriter Company Divisions. 1942. Taipisuto 17(10):54.
Oriental Typewriter Company [東洋タイプライター]. 1923. Tōyō taipuraitā moji binran: Nigōki-yō 東洋タイプライター文字便覧: 弐号機用 [Oriental Typewriter character handbook]. Tokyo: Oriental Typewriter Company.
Rigsarkivet [Danish National Archives]. 1871. “Denshin jigō” 電信字号. “Extension Selskabet – Japansk Telegrafnøgle.” Arkiv nr. 10.619. In “Love og vedtægter med anordninger.” GN Store Nord A/S SN China and Japan Extension Telegraf.
Minami, Ryōshin. 1982. “Mechanical Power and Printing Technology in Pre-World War II Japan.” Technology and Culture 23(4):609–24.
Tsunehisa, Sakurada 櫻田常久. 1941. Jūgun taipisuto [The army typist]. Tokyo: Akamon shobō.
Schmid, Andre. 2002. Korea Between Empires, 1895–1919. New York: Columbia University Press.
Seeley, Christopher. 1991. A History of Writing in Japan. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Shanghai Notables . 1943. “Biography of Yu Binqi.” 414.
Shenbao . 1919. “Lü Mei guancha tan” 旅美觀察談 [Account of visiting America]. April 3, 14.
Shenbao . 1931a. “Kang Ri hui changwuhuiyi ji di'shiqi ci” 抗日會常務會議記第十七次 [Resisting Japanese Association Standing Committee 17th meeting memo]. November 12, 13.
Shenbao . 1931b. “Kang Ri jiuguo yundong” 抗日救國運動 [Resist Japan and Save the Nation Movement]. November 8, 13–14.
Shenbao . 1931c. “Yu Binqi xiang kang Ri hui shenban” 俞斌祺向抗日會伸辨 [Yu Binqi defends himself to the Resist Japan Association]. November 9, 11.
Shenbao . 1932. “Kang Ri sheng Zhong zhi Zhongwen daziji.” 抗日聲中之中文打字機 [The Chinese typewriter: Resisting Japan and supporting China]. January 26, 12.
Shenbao . 1933. “Xin faming Zhongwen daziji mi zibenjia hezuo” 新發明中文打字機觅資本家合作 [New Chinese typewriter: Seeking cooperation with capitalists]. August 25, 14.
Shenbao . 1934a. “Yu shi Zhongwen daziji zhi da gexin” 俞氏中文打字機之大革新 [Yu's Chinese typewriter's revolution]. May 9, 12.
Shenbao . 1934b. “Zhongwen daziji zhuanli hezhun wuda chang jiji zhizao” 中文打字機專利核准五大工廠積極製造 [Chinese typewriter patent approved: Five major factories enthusiastically join in production]. March 17, 13.
Shenbao . 1935. “Yu shi Zhongwen daziji titchingchong shuizai yici” 俞氏中文打字機提成充水災義赈 [Yu's Chinese typewriter: Profits donated to flooded districts]. December 22, 12.
Shenbao . 1943a. “Quan Hu geren pingpang sai Ouyang Wei guanjun xiaojiang Yang Hanhong de Yajun” 全沪个人乒乓赛欧阳维冠军小将杨汉宏得亚军 [Shanghai individual Ping-Pong competition: Ouyang Wei wins championship, youth Yang Hanhong wins second place]. June 7, 4.
Shenbao . 1943b. “Pingpang lianhehui zuo zhengshi chengli” 乒乓联合会昨正式成立 [Ping-Pong association established yesterday]. December 6, 2.
Shenbao . 1944. “Qingzhu Ri haijun jie jinri yundong dahui you tianjing zulan paiqiu deng jiemu” 庆祝日海军节今日运动大会有田径足篮排球等节目 [Japanese Navy Festival celebration, sports meeting today: Track and field, football, basketball, and volleyball]. May 27, 3.
Shinozawa, Yusaku. 1919. “Typewriter.” United States Patent Document 1297020A. Filed June 19, 1918. Patented March 11, 1919.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1943a. Memo from Shanghai Municipal Council Secretary to All Departments and Emergency Offices, dated April 2, 1943, signed by Takagi, entitled “Cleaning of Typewriters, Calculators, etc. - 1943.” SMA U1-4-3586, p. 35.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1943b. Price quotations from typewriter companies to the General Office, First District of the Government Shanghai, dated circa December 21, 1943. SMA R22-2-776, pp. 1–28.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1943c. Receipt from C. Y. Chao for cleaning services, dated October 12, 1943, to Secretariat Office. SMA U1-4-3582, p. 5.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1951a. Shanghai Zhongwen daziji zhizaochang lianyingsuo chanxiao jihua 上海中文打字机製造廠聯營所產銷計劃 [Shanghai Chinese Typewriter Manufacturing joint venture marketing plan]. December, 65. SMA S289-4-37.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1951b. Shanghai Zhongwen daziji zhizaochang lianyingsuo zuzhi zhangcheng cao'an 上海中文打字機製造廠聯營所組織章程草案 [Draft charter of the Shanghai Chinese Typewriter Manufacturing Plant Joint Management Organization]. December. SMA S289-4-37.
SMA (Shanghai Municipal Archives). 1964. “Shuangge pai DHY xing Zhongwen daziji jianding baogao” 双鴿牌DHY型中文打字机堅定報告 [Double Pigeon DHY Model Chinese typewriter evaluation report]. Shanghai jisuanji daziji guang [Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Company]. April 24. SMA B155-2-284.
Stickney, Burnham. 1925. “Typewriting Machine.” United States Patent Document 1549622. Filed February 9, 1923. Patented August 11, 1925.
Yanagiwara, Sukeshige. 1916. “Type-Writing Machine.” United States Patent Document 1206072. Filed February 1, 1915. Patented November 28, 1916. Assignor to Underwood Typewriter Company.
Taipisuto . 1941a. “Typist Rush in Taiwan Reaches Peak.” 16(8):11.
Taipisuto . 1941b. “The First Manchuria-Wide Typist Competition Held in Xinjing.” 16(10):2–7.
Taipisuto . 1942. Cover. 12(12).
TMA (Tianjin Municipal Archives). 1943. “Di'er hui Tianjin Bangwen liancheng jingji dahui” 第二回天津邦文鍊成競技大會 [Second Tianjin Japanese Typewriter Competition]. October 9. TMA J128-3-9615.
TMA (Tianjin Municipal Archives). 1952. “Hongxing daziji chang yi jiu wu er nian ji jian jihua” 紅星打字機廠一九五二年基建計劃 [Red Star Chinese Typewriter Plant 1952 construction plan]. TMA X77-1-415: 13–17.
Tōkyō Ōsaka ryōshi ni okeru shokugyō fujo chōsa 東京大阪両市に於ける職業婦女調査 [Investigation of women's occupations in Tokyo and Osaka]. 1927. Tokyo: n.p.
Toshiba Japanese Typewriter. Mft. c. 1935. Peter Mitterhofer Schreibmaschinemuseum/Museo Delle Macchine da Scrivere. Partschins (Parcines), Italy, “Macchina da Scrivere Giapponese Toshiba.”
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. 1997. Student Protests in Twentieth-Century China: The View from Shanghai. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Hisako, Watabe 渡部久子. 1929. Hōbun taipuraitā tokuhon 邦文タイプライター讀本 [Japanese typewriter textbook]. Tokyo: Sūbundō.
Watt, Lori. 2009. When Empire Comes Home: Repatriates and Reintegration in Postwar Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center.
Xinhuashe xinwen gao 新華社新聞稿. 1956. “Shanghai xin kai yi jia guimo juda de gongsi heying daziji dian” 上海新开一家規模巨大的公私打字机店 [A large-scale public-private typewriter store newly opened in Shanghai]. 2295.
xsnet.cn. 2012. “Xiaoshanren huo shi Zhongguo pingpang qiu ji youyong yundong zhuyao kaichuang zhe” 萧山人或是中国乒乓球及游泳运动主要开创者 [Native of Xiaoshan was pioneer of Chinese table tennis and swimming]. May 22. http://www.xsnet.cn/news/shms/2012_5/1570558.shtml (accessed June 3, 2016).
Yamada, H. 1980. “A Historical Study of Typewriters and Typing Methods: From the Position of Planning Japanese Parallels.” Japanese Information Processing 2(4):175202.
Yamada, H., and Tanaka, J.. 1977. “A Human Factors Study of Input Keyboard for Japanese Text.” In Proceedings of the International Computer Symposium, 47–64. Taipei: National Taiwan University.
Yang, Daqing. 2010. “Telecommunication and the Japanese Empire: A Preliminary Analysis of Telegraphic Traffic.” Historical Social Research 35(1):6689.
Yang, Daqing. 2011. Technology of Empire: Telecommunications and Japanese Expansion in Asia, 1883–1945. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center.
Shuolin, Yu. 2010. “Liang zhong Zhongwen daizji” 两种中文打字机 [Two types of Chinese typewriter]. Lao xiaohai shequ 老小孩社区 [Old kids blog]. www.oldkids.cn/blog/blog_con.php?blogid=116181 (accessed May 12, 2013).
Yuandong maoyi yuebao [Far east trade monthly]. 1940. “Ri Man Hua Meng wen gezhong daziji” 日滿華蒙文各種打字機 [Japanese, Manchu, Chinese, Mongolian All-Script Typewriter]. 7: reverse cover.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive], ed. [1932] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 112]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1933] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 114]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1935] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 118]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1936] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 122]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1937] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 126]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1938] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 130]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1939] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 134]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1940] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 138]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1941] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 142]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhongguo di'er lishi dang'anguan [Chinese second historical archive]. [1942] 2001. Zhongguo jiu haiguan shiliao 中國舊海關史料 [Historical materials on the old Chinese maritime customs, 1859–1948, vol. 144]. Beijing: Jinghua Press.
Zhou Daowu 周道悟. 1956. Renhe laodong, dou shi wancheng wunian jihua buke queshaode laoding, dou shi guangrongde laodong! 任何勞動,都是完成五年计划不可缺少的劳动,都是光荣的劳动! [Whatever work is work aiming to complete and not to fail the Five Year Plan, all that work is glorious!]. PC-1956-013, private collection, chineseposters.net.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Journal of Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0021-9118
  • EISSN: 1752-0401
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed