British Library, India Office Records, London. 1872. “The Frontier Crimes Regulation.” The Punjab Government Gazette. V/11/2779B.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1876. C. U. Aitchison, Foreign Department – (Political), November 2. L/P&S 7/11, vol. 217, 309–20.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1886a. L. W. Dane, Officiating Registrar Chief Court, Punjab, to Young, Secretary to Government, Punjab, July 29. L/P&J 6/202, vol. 776, 311–24.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1886b. W. M. Young to the Officiating Commissioner and Superintendent, Peshawar Division, February 15. L/P&J 6/202, vol. 776, 307.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1887. Correspondence, May 12. L/P&J 6/202, vol. 776, 295–301.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1897. Regulation No. V of 1896: The Chin Hills Regulation, 1896, with Rules Framed Thereunder, and Notifications, May. L/P&S 18/B146.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1898. Regulation No. I of 1898: A Regulation to Amend the Kachin Hill-Tribes Regulation, 1895. May. L/P&S 18/B147.
British Library, India Office Records, London. 1903. Administration Report of the Northwest Frontier Province from 9th November 1901 to 31st March 1903. NWFP Administration Reports. V/10/370.
National Archives, London, Colonial Office Records. 1934. “Special Districts Administrative Ordinance.” The Official Gazette of the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya. CO 542/32, 417.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1850. Maj. H. P. Burn to Lumsden, August 30. Secret Consultations, vol. 15.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1870. Notification, June. Political A, vol. 170.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1871. Lepel H. Griffin, Offg. Secy. to the Govt., Punjab, to Secy. to Govt. of India, Foreign Department, September. Political A, vol. 206.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1880. Appendix A: Extract paras. 3 to 10 and 20 to 24 from Frontier Memorandum, May. Political A, no. 186.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1887a. A. H. Benton, Sessions Judge, Peshawar Division to the Commissioner and Superintendent, Peshawar Division. Frontier A, no. 118.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1887b. Regarding the State of Crime in the Peshawar Division, July. Frontier A, vol. 103-23, K. W. No. 1.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1888a. Henry M. Durand, Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department, to the Secretary to the Government of the Punjab, January. Frontier A, no. 30.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1888b. W. G. Waterfield, Commissioner and Superintendent, Peshawar Division, to the Deputy Commissioner, Kohat. Frontier A, no. 16.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1888c. Empress vs. Muhammad Umar Khan, et. al. Frontier A, no. 146.
National Archives of India, New Delhi, Foreign Department. 1890. Regulation No. IV of 1889. Frontier A, no. 45.
Abou Zahab, Mariam. 2013. “Kashars Against Mashars: Jihad and Social Change in the FATA.” In Beyond Swat: History, Society and Economy Along the Afghanistan-Pakistan Frontier, eds. Hopkins, Benjamin D. and Marsden, Magnus, 93–106. London: C. Hurst & Co.
Ahmed, Akbar. 1979. “Colonial Encounter on the North West Frontier Province.” Economic and Political Weekly 14(51–52):2092–97.
The Baluchistan Code. 1890. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing.
Barth, Fredrik. 1969. “Pathan Identity and Its Maintenance.” In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference, ed. Barth, Fredrik, 117–34. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Benton, Lauren. 1999. “Colonial Law and Cultural Difference: Jurisdictional Politics and the Formation of the Colonial State.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41(3):563–88.
Benton, Lauren. 2010. A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berry, Charles Allen. 1987. The Secret of Vatican Hill. Harbor City, Calif.: Allen & Nuri.
Beverley, Eric Lewis. 2013. “Frontier as Resource: Law, Crime, and Sovereignty on the Margins of Empire.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 55(2):241–72.
Bruce, Richard Isaac. 1900. The Forward Policy and Its Results: Or Thirty-Five Years Work Amongst the Tribes on Our North-Western Frontier of India. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
Clunan, Anne L. 2010. “Ungoverned Spaces? The Need for Reevaluation.” In Ungoverned Spaces: Alternatives to State Authority in an Era of Softened Sovereignty, eds. Clunan, Anne L. and Trinkunas, Harold A., 3–16. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Copland, Ian. 1982. The British Raj and the Indian Princes: Paramountcy in Western India, 1857-1930. Bombay: Orient Longman.
Curzon, George. 1907. Frontiers: The Romanes Lectures 1907. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dirks, Nicholas. 2001. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Edney, Matthew. 1990. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Elphinstone, Mountstuart.  1991. An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul. 3rd ed. 2 vols. Karachi: Indus Publications.
Elsmie, George R. 1908. Thirty-Five Years in the Punjab. Edinburgh: David Douglas.
Foucault, Michel. 1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality: With Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault, eds. Burchell, Graham, Gordon, Colin, and Miller, Peter, 87–104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Freitag, Sandra. 1991. “Crime in the Social Order of Colonial North India.” Modern Asian Studies 25(2):227–61.
Glanville, Luke. 2013. “The Myth of ‘Traditional’ Sovereignty.” International Studies Quarterly 57(1):79–90.
Gordon-Walker, T. 1886. Report of the Administration of Criminal Justice in the Punjab and Its Dependencies during the Year 1885. Lahore: W. Ball & Co.
Green, Nile. 2008. “Tribe, Diaspora, and Sainthood in Afghan History.” Journal of Asian Studies 67(1):171–211.
Guha, Ranajit. 1963. A Rule of Property for Bengal: An Essay on the Idea of Permanent Settlement, Le monde d'outre-mer passe et present. Primiere serie: Etudes XIX. Paris: Mouton & Co.
Guha, Ranajit. 1997. Dominance Without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. 2011. Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Hodson, T. C.  1987. India Census Ethnography, 1901-31. New Delhi: Usha.
Hopkins, Benjamin D. 2007. “The Bounds of Identity: The Goldsmid Mission and the Delineation of the Perso-Afghan Border in the Nineteenth Century.” Journal of Global History 2(2):233–54.
Hopkins, Benjamin D. 2008. The Making of Modern Afghanistan. Basingstoke: PalgraveMacmillan.
Johnson, Robert A. 2003. “‘Russians at the Gates of India?’ Planning the Defence of India, 1885-1900.” Journal of Military History 67(3):697–743.
Lorimer, J. G. 2013. “Customary Law of the Main Tribes in the Peshawar District.” In The Frontier Crimes Regulation: A History in Documents, ed. Nichols, Robert, 194–253. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Marsden, Magnus, and Hopkins, Benjamin D.. 2011. Fragments of the Afghan Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press.
Misra, Sanghamitra. 1998. “The Nature of Colonial Intervention in the Naga Hills, 1840-80.” Economic and Political Weekly 33(51):3273–79.
Mitchell, Timothy. 2002. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nichols, Robert. 2008. A History of Pashtun Migration, 1775-2006. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
“The Punjab Frontier Crimes Regulation, 1887.” 1888. In The Punjab Code: Consisting of the Unrepealed Bengal Regulations, Local Acts of the Governor General in Council, and Regulations Made under the Statute 33 Victoria, Cap. 3, in Force in the Punjab, 390–405. Calcutta: The Superintendent of Government Printing.
Rattigan, H. A. B., ed. 1899. “Regulation No. IV of 1887: The Punjab Frontier Crimes Regulation.” In The Bengal Regulations, the Acts of the Governor-General in Council, and the Frontier Regulations, Made under the Thirty-third of Victoria, Chapter Three, Applicable to the Punjab with Notes and an Index: Vol. III Containing Acts from 1887 to end of 1895, and Punjab Frontier Regulations from 1870 to 1893, 2835–51. Lahore: Civil and Military Gazette Press.
Rattigan, H. A. B. 1903. “Regulation No. III of 1901: The Frontier Crimes Regulation.” In The Bengal Regulations, the Acts of the Governor-General in Council, and the Frontier Regulations, Made Under the Thirty-third of Victoria, Chapter Three, Applicable to the Punjab with Notes and an Index: Vol. IV Containing India Acts from 1896 to 1902, Punjab Acts from 1898 to 1902 and Frontier Regulations 1901, 559–77. Lahore: Civil and Military Gazette Press.
Robb, Peter. 1997. “The Colonial State and Constructions of Indian Identity: An Example of the Northeast Frontier in the 1880s.” Modern Asian Studies 31(2):245–83.
Scott, James C. 2009. The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Sherman, Taylor C. 2010. State Violence and Punishment in India. London: Routledge.
Sikdar, Sudatta. 1982. “Tribalism vs. Colonialism: British Capitalistic Intervention and Transformation of Primitive Economy of Arunachal Pradesh in the Nineteenth Century.” Social Scientist 10(12):15–31.
Sinha, Mrinalini. 1995. Colonial Masculinity: The ‘Manly Englishman’ and the ‘Effeminate Bengali’ in the Late Nineteenth Century. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Skaria, Ajay. 1997. “Shades of Wildness: Tribe, Caste, and Gender in Western India.” Journal of Asian Studies 56(3):726–45.
Sokefeld, Martin. 2005. “From Colonialism to Postcolonial Colonialism: Changing Modes of Domination in the Northern Areas of Pakistan.” Journal of Asian Studies 64(4):939–73.
Stoler, Ann Laura. 2006. “On Degrees of Imperial Sovereignty.” Public Culture 18(1):125–46.
Talbot, Ian. 1991. “British Rule in the Punjab, 1849-1947: Characteristics and Consequences.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 19(2):203–21.
Tanguay-Renaud, Francois. 2002. “Post-colonial Pluralism, Human Rights and the Administration of Criminal Justice in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.” Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law 6:541–96.
Titus, Paul. 1998. “Honor the Baloch, Buy the Pushtun: Stereotypes, Social Organization and History in Western Pakistan.” Modern Asian Studies 32(3):657–87.
Vail, Leroy. 1989. “Introduction: Ethnicity in Southern African History.” In The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa, ed. Vail, Leroy, 1–20. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Xaxa, Virginius. 1999. “Transformation of Tribes in India: Terms of Discourse.” Economic and Political Weekly 34(24):1519–24.
Yang, Anand. 1985. “Dangerous Castes and Tribes: The Criminal Tribes Act and the Magahiya Doms of Northeast India.” In Crime and Criminality in British India, ed. Yang, Anand, 108–27. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.