Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Muslim Tombs and Ethnic Folklore: Charters for Hui Identity

  • Dru C. Gladney

Extract

The Hui minority, the largest of ten Muslim nationalities in China, is distributed throughout every province and city and over 70 percent of all counties (Map 1; Diao 1967:169). This paper endeavors to shift discussion away from conventional considerations of whether the Hui are really “Muslim” or merely inheritors of a cultural tradition somewhat different from the Han majority. Instead, I propose to examine one important area of interest to Hui communities throughout China, namely the lore and events surrounding various tombs and shrines, which I categorize as historic, Sufi, and local. Historic tombs reflect concerns that put local Hui identity in an international perspective; Sufi tombs link the Hui in national networks and often divide them regionally; and local tombs evoke interests that are more communal, reflecting practical concerns and personal identities.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Adams, Kathleen. 1984. “Come to Tana Toraja, ‘Land of the Heavenly Kings’: Travel Agents as Brokers in Ethnicity.” Annals of Tourism Research, no. 11:469–85.
Ali, Ikbal. 1933. Islamic Sufism. Delhi: Idarah-I Adabiyat-I Delli.
Arberry, A. J. 1950. Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Archer, Nathaniel P., ed. 1980. The Sufi Mystery. London: Octagon Press.
Shouyi, Bai. [1947] 1985. “Sai Dianchi Shan Siding zhuan” [Biography of Sai Dianchi Shans al-Din]. Qingzhen yuebao, no. 31. Reprinted in Zhongguo Yisilanjiaoshi cankao ziliao xuanbian, 1911–1949 [China Islamic history reference material selections, 1911–1949], ed. Xinghua, Li and jinyuan, Fen, vol. 1. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Shouyi, Bai. 1951. “Huihui minzu de xingcheng” [The nature of the Hui nationality]. Guangming rebao, Feb. 17.
Shouyi, Bai. 1953 Huimin qiyi [Uprisings of the Hui]. 4 vols. Shanghai.
Shouyi, Bai and Shouqian, Ma. [1958] 1984. “Jizhong huihui jiapu zhong suofanying de lishi wenti” [Several historical problems reflected in Huihui genealogies]. Beijing Normal University Journal, no. 2. Reprinted in Huizushilunji, 1949–1979 [Hui history collection, 1949–1979], ed. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Ethnology Department and Central Nationalities Institute Ethnology Department, Hui History Team. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Shouyi, Bai and Huaizhong, Yang, ed. 1985. Huizu renwu zhi, Yuandai [Annals of Hui personages, Yuan dynasty], Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Company.
Bentley, G. Carter. 1983. “Theoretical Perspectives on Ethnicity and Nationality.” Part 1. Sage Race Relations Abstracts 8, no. 2:153.
Blake, Fred C. 1981. Ethnic Groups and Social Change in a Chinese Market Town. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Botham, Mark E. 1924. “A Saint's Tomb in China.” Moslem World 14, no. 2:185–86.
Broomhall, Marshall. 1910. Islam in China: A Neglected Problem. New York: Paragon Book Co.
Brown, Peter. 1984. “Late Antiquity and Islam: Parallels and Contrasts.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Chan, Wing-tsit. 1953. Religious Trends in Modern China. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dasheng, Chen. 1983a. “Quanzhou yisilanjiaopai yu yuanmou yisiba xizhanluan xingzhi shishen” [Tentative inquiry into the Islamic sects at Quanzhou and the “Isbah” disturbance toward the end of the Yuan dynasty]. In Symposium on Quanzhou Islam, ed. Quanzhou Maritime Museum. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.
Dasheng, Chen. 1983b. “Quanzhou lingshan shenmu niandai chushen” [A tentative inquiry into the date of the Lingshan holy tomb at Quanzhou]. In Symposium on Quanzhou Islam, ed. Quanzhou Maritime Museum. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.
Dasheng, Chen, ed. 1984. Islamic Inscriptions in Quanzhou. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society and Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.
Dasheng, Chen. [1975] 1984. “Li Zhi de Jiashi, Guju jiqi qi mubei” [Li Zhi's family, ancient residences, and his wife's gravestone]. Wenwu, no. 1. Reprinted in Huizu shiiun ji, 1949–1979 [Hui history collection, 1949–1979], ed. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Ethnology Department and Central Nationalities Institute Ethnology Department, Hui History Team. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Wen-djang, Chu. 1955. “Ch'ing Policy Towards the Muslims in the Northwest.” Ph.D. diss., University of Washington.
Cohen, Erik. 1979. “The Impact of Tourism on the Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand.” Internales Asienforum 10, no. 1/2:538.
Crapanzano, Vincent. 1973. The Hamadsha: A Study in Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
de Thiersant, Dabry. 1878. Mahometisme en Chine. 2 vols. Paris: Librairie de la Societe Asiatique.
DeVos, George. 1975. “Ethnic Pluralism: Conflict and Accommodation.” In Ethnic Identity: Cultural Continuities and Change, ed. DeVos, George and Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing Co.
Diamond, Norma. 1985. “Rural Collectivization and Decollectivization in China— A Review Article.” Journal of Asian Studies 44, no. 4:785–92.
Diao, Richard K. 1967. “The National Minorities of China and Their Relations with the Chinese Communist Regime.” In Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities, and Nations, ed. Kunstadter, Peter. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
d'Ollone, Henri M. G. 1911. Recherches sur les Musulmans chinois. Paris: E. Leroux.
Dreyer, June. 1976. China's Forty Million: Minority Nationalities and National Integration in the People's Republic of China. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Dyer, Svetlana Rimsky-Korsakoff. 1979. Soviet Dungan Kolkhozes in the Kirghiz SSR and the Kazakh SSR. Oriental Monograph Series no. 25. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Eaton, Richard Maxwell. 1978. Sufis of Bijapur, 1300–1700: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Eaton, Richard Maxwell. 1984. “The Political and Religious Authority of the Shrine of Baba Farid.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place ofAdab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Eickelman, Dale F. 1976. Moroccan Islam: Tradition and Society in a Pilgrimage Center. Austin and London: University of Texas Press.
Eickelman, Dale F. 1981. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Ekvall, Robert. 1939. Cultural Relations on the Kansu-Tibetan Border. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ewing, Catharine. 1984. “The Sufi as Saint, Curer, and Exorcist in Modern Pakistan.” Contributions to Asian Studies, no. 18:106–14.
Fabian, Johannes. 1982. “Six Theses Regarding the Anthropology of African Religious Movements.” Religion, no. 11:109–26.
Xiaotong, Fei. 1981. “Ethnic Identification in China.” In Toward a People's Anthropology, ed. Xiaotong, Fei. Beijing: New World Press.
Zenglie, Feng. 1985. “‘Gedimu’ bayi” [”Gedimu” eight opinions]. In Xibei Yisilanjiao yanjiu [Northwest Islam research], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Lanzhou: Gansu Nationality Publishing Society.
Fischer, Michael M. J. 1980. Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Fletcher, Joseph. n.d. “The Sufi ‘Paths’ (turuq) in China.” Unpublished paper, Harvard University.
Fletcher, Joseph. 1971. “Central Asian Sufism and Ma Ming-hsin's New Teaching.” Proceedings of the Fourth East Asian Altaistk Conference Taibei.
Fletcher, Joseph. 1979. “A Brief History of the Chinese Northwestern Frontier, China Proper's Northwest Frontier: Meetingplace of Four Cultures.” In China's Inner Asian Frontier, ed. Alonso, Mary Ellen. Cambridge, Mass.: The Peabody Museum, Harvard University.
Ford, J. 1974. “Some Chinese Muslims of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” Asian Affairs, n.s. 5, no. 2:144–56.
Zhanfu, Gao. 1985. “Guanyu jiaopai zhizheng zai qingdai xibei Huimin qiyi zhong xiaoji zuoyong de tantao” [Discussion regarding the inactive role of factional struggles in the Qing dynasty Northwest Hui rebellions]. In Xibei Yisilanjiao yanjiu [Northwest Islam research], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Lanzhou: Gansu Nationality Publishing Society.
Gates, Hill. 1981. “Ethnicity and Social Class.” In The Anthropology of Taiwanese Society, ed. Ahern, Emily and Gates, Hill. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Geertz, Clifford. 1968. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gellner, Ernest. 1969. Saints of the Atlas. London: Wedenfeld and Nicolson.
Gellner, Ernest. 1981. Muslim Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilmartin, David. 1984. “Shrines, Succession, and Sources of Moral Authority.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Gladney, Dru C. 1983. “A Muslim State in China? Ethnoreligious Factionalism and the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan.” Paper presented at the Northwest Regional Seminar on East Asia, University of Washington, Apr. 9.
Gladney, Dru C. 1986. “Ways of the Hui: Processes of Ethnoreligious Adaptation Among the Hui Minority of China, The Case of Na Family Village, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.” Paper presented at the Association for Asian Studies Meetings, Chicago, Mar. 20–23.
Gladney, Dru C. Forthcoming. “Ethnic Identity and Adaptation in a Southeastern Hui Lineage.” In Minority Nationalities of China: Language and Culture, ed. Li, Charles and Gladney, Dru C.. Amsterdam: Mouton Press.
Grayburn, Nelson. 1977. “Tourism: The Sacred Journey.” In Hosts and Guests, ed. Smith, V.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Greenwood, D. M. 1972. “Tourism as an Agent of Change: A Spanish Basque Case.” Ethnology, no. 11:8091.
Harrell, Stevan. 1974. “When a Ghost Becomes a God.” In Studies in Chinese Society, ed. Wolf, Arthur P.. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Harrell, Stevan, and Perry, Elizabeth. 1982. “An Introduction.” In “Symposium: Syncretic Sects in Chinese Society,” ed. Harrell, Stevan and Perry, Elizabeth. Modern China 8, no. 3:283305.
He Qiaoyuan. c. 1620. Minshu, vol. 7.
Tianzhu, Huang and Yuanquan, Liao. 1983. “An Informal Talk on the Moslem Descendants at the Quanzhou Area and Their Heritage.” In Symposium on Quanzhou Islam, ed. Quanzhou Maritime Museum. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.
Israeli, Raphael. 1978. Muslims in China. London and Atlantic Highlands: Curzon and Humanities Press.
Israeli, Raphael. 1982. “Muslim Plight Under Chinese Rule.” In Islam in Asia Minor, ed. Israeli, Raphael. London and Atlantic Highlands: Curzon and Humanities Press.
Israeli, Raphael. 1984. “Muslims in China: Islam's Incompatibility with the Chinese Order.” In Islam in Asia, ed. Israeli, Raphael and Johns, Anthony H., vol. 2. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Izutsu, Toshihiko. 1983. Sufism and Daoism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Jamjoom, Ahmad Salah. 1985. “Notes of a Visit to Mainland China.” Journal, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 6, no. 1:208–18.
Binggao, Jin. 1984. “The Marxist Definition of Nationality, Its Origin and Influence.” Zhongyang minzu xueyuan xuebao [Central Nationalities Institute journal], no. 3:6467.
Yijiu, Jin. 1985. “Sufeipai yu Zhongguo menhuan” [Sufism and China's menhuan]. In Xibei Yisilanjiao yanjiu [Northwest Islam research], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Lanzhou: Gansu Nationality Publishing Society.
Kessler, Clive S. 1978. Islam and Politics in a Malay State: Kelantan, 1838–1969. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Keyes, Charles F. 1981. “The Dialectics of Ethnic Change.” In Ethnic Change, ed. Keyes, Charles. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Lapidus, Ira M. 1984. “Knowledge, Virtue, and Action: The Classical Muslim Conception of Adab and the Nature of Religious Fulfillment in Islam.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Lardy, Nicholas R. 1986. “Agricultural Reforms in China.” Journal of International Affairs 39, no. 2:91104.
Lattimore, Owen. 1929. The Desert Road to Turkestan. Boston: Little, Brown.
Lattimore, Owen. 1951. Inner Asian Frontiers of China. New York: American Geographical Society.
Leslie, Donald Daniel. 1981. Islamic Literature in Chinese, Late Ming and Early Ch'ing: Books, Authors, and Associates. Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education.
Leslie, Donald Daniel. 1986. Islam in Traditional China: A Short History to 1800. Canberra: Canberra College of Advanced Education.
Lipman, Jonathan N. 1981. “The Border World of Gansu, 1895–1935.” Ph.D. diss., Stanford University.
Lipman, Jonathan N. 1984a. “Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu.” Modern China 10, no. 3:285316.
Lipman, Jonathan N. 1984b. “Patchwork Society, Network Society: A Study of Sino-Muslim Communities.” In Islam in Asia, ed. Israeli, Raphael and Johns, Anthony H., vol. 2. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Lipman, Jonathan N. 1986. “The Third Wave: Establishment and Transformation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Modern China.” Paper presented at the China Colloquium of the Henry S. Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington, Feb. 20.
Binru, Liu and Dazuo, Chen. [1962] 1984. “Yangzhou ‘Huihui tang’ he yuandai alabowen de mubei” [Yangzhou “Huihui temple” and the Yuan dynasty Arabic gravestones]. Reprinted in Huizu shilun ji, 1949–1979 {Hui history collection 1949–1979], ed. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Ethnology Department and Central Nationalities Institute Ethnology Department, Hui History Team. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Löwenthal, Rudolf. 1940. The Religious Periodical Press in China. Beijing: n.p.
Kexun, Ma. 1982. “Zhongguo Yisilanjiao Yihewanyi pai di changdaozhe: Ma Wanfu” [The leader of China's Ikhwan: Ma Wanfu]. In Yisilanjiao zai Zhongguo [Islam in China], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Qicheng, Ma. 1983. “A Brief Account of the Early Spread of Islam in China.” Social Sciences in China, no. 4:97113.
Shouqian, Ma. 1979. “Yisilanjiao zai Zhongguo weishenmo you chengwei huijiao huo qingzhenjiao?” [Why is Islam in China called Huijiao or Qingzhenjiao?]. Guangming rebao, Oct. 9.
Tong, Ma. [1981] 1983. Zhongguo Yisilan jiaopai yu menhuan zhidu shilue [A history of Muslim factions and the menhuan system in China]. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Tong, Ma and Qi, Wang. 1985. “Zhongguo Yisilanjiao de jiaopai he menhuan” [The religious factions and menhuan of China's Islam]. In Xibei Yisilanjiao yanjiu [Northwest Islam research], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Lanzhou: Gansu Nationality Publishing Society.
Zikuo, Ma. [193?] 1985. “Linxia Gongbei Siyuan” [Tracing the source of Linxia gongbei]. Reprinted in Zhongguo Yisilanjiaoshi cankao ziliao xuanbian, 1911–1949 [China Islamic history reference material selections, 1911–1949], ed. Xinghua, Li and Jinyuan, Fen, vol. 1. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Mason, Isaac. 1925. “Notes on Chinese Mohammedan Literature.Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, no. 56:172215.
Masud, Khalid M. 1984. “Adab al-Mufti: The Muslim Understanding of Values, Characteristics, and Role of a Mufti.” In Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, ed. Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Metcalf, Barbara Daly, ed. 1984. Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Weiling, Mian. 1981. Ningxia Yisilan jiaopai gaiyao [An outline of the Islamic factions of Ningxia]. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Weiling, Mian. 1985. “Ningxia Huizu Yisilanjiao de jiaopai fenhua qiantan” [Brief talk on the distribution of Ningxia Hui Islamic factions]. In Xibei Yisilanjiao yanjiu [Northwest Islam research], ed. Gansu Provincial Ethnology Department. Lanzhou: Gansu Nationality Publishing Society.
Minzutuanjie [United nationalities magazine]. 1984. “Twenty-nine Provinces, Cities, and Autonomous Regions’ Minority Nationality Population.” No. 2:38–39, no. 3:46–47.
Nagata, Judith A. 1981. “In Defense of Ethnic Boundaries: The Changing Myths and Charters of Malay Identity.” In Ethnic Change, ed. Keyes, Charles. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Nakada, Yoshinobu. 1971. Kaikai minzoku no shomondai [Studies of the Hui people]. Tokyo: Ajia Keizai Kenkyūjo.
Zhi, Pei. 1959. “Hai Rui shi fo Huizu” [Was Hai Rui a Hui?]. Guangming rebao, Nov. 26. Reprinted in Huizushilunji, 1949–1979 [Hui history collection, 1949–1979], ed. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Ethnology Department and Central Nationalities Institute Ethnology Department, Hui History Team. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Pickens, Claude L. 1933. “Across China in Two Weeks.” The Chinese Recorder, no. 64:625–28.
Pickens, Claude L. 1937. “The Challenge of Chinese Moslems.” The Chinese Recorder no. 68:414–17.
Pickens, Claude L. 1942. “The Four Men Huans.” Friends of Moslems 16, no. 1.
Pillsbury, Barbara L. K.. 1973. “Cohesion and Cleavage in a Chinese Muslim Minority.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University.
Pillsbury, Barbara L. K.. 1974. “No Pigs for the Ancestors: Pigs, Mothers, and Filial Piety Among the ‘Taiwanese Muslims’.” Paper presented at the Symposium on Chinese Folk Religions, University of California, Riverside, Apr. 24.
Pillsbury, Barbara L. K.. 1976. “Blood Ethnicity: Maintenance of Muslim Identity in Taiwan.” Paper read at the Conference on Anthropology in Taiwan, Portsmouth, N.H., Aug. 19–24.
Pillsbury, Barbara L. K.. 1984. “Muslim Population in China According to the 1982 Census.” Journal, Institute for Muslim Minority Affairs 5, no. 1:231–33.
Museum, Quanzhou Maritime, ed. 1983. Symposium on Quanzhou Islam. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.
Rahman, Fazlur. 1968. Islam. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.
Roff, William R. 1984. “The Meccan Pilgrimage: Its Meaning for Southeast Asian Islam.” In Islam in Asia, ed. Israeli, Raphael and Johns, Anthony H., vol. 2. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Roff, William R.. 1985. “Islam Obscured? Some Reflections on Studies of Islam and Society in Asia.” L'Islam en Indonesie 1, no. 29:734.
Schwartz, Theodore. 1975. “Cultural Totemism: Ethnic Identity Primitive and Modern.” In Ethnic Identity: Cultural Continuities and Change, ed. DeVos, George and Romanucci-Ross, Lola. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing.
Schwarz, Henry G. 1984. The Minorities of Northern China: A Survey. Bellingham, Wash.: Western Washington University Press.
Shah, Idries. 1969. The Way of the Sufi. New York: E. P. Dutton.
Shichor, Yitzhak. 1984. “The Role of Islam in China's Middle-Eastern Policy.” In Islam in Asia, ed. Israeli, Raphael and Johns, Anthony H., vol. 2. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Shue, Vivienne. 1984. “The Fate of the Commune.” Modern China 10, no. 3:250–83.
Smith, Valene, ed. 1977. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
State Commission for Nationality Affairs, ed. 1983. Minzu lilun yu minzu zhengce [Nationality theory and nationality policy]. Beijing: State Commission for Nationality Affairs Education Department.
Subhan, John A. 1960. Sufism: Us Saints and Shrines. Lucknow: Lucknow Publishing House.
Kōdō, Tazaka. 1941. “Ri Jisei wa kaikyoto ka?” [Was Li Zicheng a Muslim?}. Tōhō gakuhō 12, no. 2:91110.
Trimingham, John Spencer. 1971. The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Trippner, Joseph. 1961. “Islamische Gruppe undGraberkult in Nordwest China” [Muslim groups and grave-cults in northwest China]. Die Welt des Islams 7:142–71.
Trottier, Richard. 1981. “Charters of Panethnic Identity: Indigenous American Indians and Immigrant Asian Americans.” In Ethnic Change, ed. Keyes, Charles. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Voll, John O. 1982. Islam: Continuity and Change in the Modern World. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
Voll, John O. 1985. “Muslim Minority Alternatives: Implications of Muslim Experiences in China and the Soviet UnionJournal, Institute for Muslim Minority Affairs 6, no. 2:332–53.
Weber, Max. 1952. Ancient Judaism. Trans, and ed. Gerth, Hans H. and Martindale, Don. Glencoe: Free Press.
Weber, Max. 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Trans. Parsons, Talcott. New York: Charles Scribner.
Weller, Robert P. 1987. Unities and Diversities in Chinese Religion. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Wolf, Arthur P. 1978. “Gods, Ghosts, and Ancestors.” In Studies in Chinese Society, ed. Wolf, Arthur P.. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hongxun, Yang. 1985. “A Preliminary Discussion on the Building Year of Quanzhou Holy Tomb and the Authenticity of Its Legend.” In The Islamic Historic Relics in Quanzhou, ed. Committee for Protecting Islamic Historical Relics in Quanzhou and the Research Centre for the Historical Relics of Chinese Culture. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing House.
Yang, Mohammed Usiar Huaizhong. 1981. “Lun shiba shiji Zhehlinye Musilin di qiyi” [On the eighteenth-century Jahriyyah Muslim uprisings]. In Qingdai Zhongguo Yisilan jiao lunji [Essays on Islam in China during the Qing period], ed. Ningxia Philosophy and Social Science Institute. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Yang, Mohammed Usiar Huaizhong. Forthcoming. “Sufism Among the Hui Muslims in Gansu, Ningxia, and Qinghai.” In Minority Nationalities of China: Language and Culture, ed. Li, Charles and Gladney, Dru C.. Amsterdam: Mouton Press.
Zhengang, Ye. 1981. “Ningxia Yihewanyi zhuming jingxuejia Hu Gaoshan” [The renowned scriptural scholar of the Ningxia Ikwan, Hu Gaoshan]. In Qingdai Zhongguo Yisilanjiao lunji [Essays on Islam in China during the Qing period], ed. Ningxia Philosophy and Social Science Institute. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing Society.
Yegar, Moshe. 1966. “The Panthay (Chinese Muslims) of Burma and Yunnan.” Journal of South-East Asian History 7, no. 1:7385.
Yuzhi, Zhang and Debao, Jin. 1940. “Dao Chendaixiang qu—baogao” [Trip to Chendaixiang—report]. Unpublished report, Quanzhou, Feb.
Cheng, Zhi. 1983. “‘Fanke mu’ ji qi youguan wen ti shitan” [A tentative inquiry into “barbarian guest's graves” and related problems]. In Symposium on Quanzhou Islam, ed. Museum, Quanzhou Maritime. Quanzhou: Fujian People's Publishing Society.

Muslim Tombs and Ethnic Folklore: Charters for Hui Identity

  • Dru C. Gladney

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed