Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-xl4lj Total loading time: 0.322 Render date: 2021-06-17T10:15:56.038Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Safe for Democracy: Constitutional Politics, Popular Spectacle, and the British Monarchy 1910–1914

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 March 2019


How did the British monarchy respond to the multiple challenges of early twentieth-century mass democracy? Historians have separated the growth of constitutional sovereignty from the practice of a welfare monarchy, or from royalty as decorative and media friendly. This article argues that the political transformation of the modern monarchy was inseparable from innovations to its style and presentation. Opening with the dramatic constitutional crisis that confronted George V and his advisors in 1910, I show how the monarchy's entanglement in high politics forced the crown to assume an increasingly neutral, arbitrarial stance on industrial disputes and on the Irish question, despite the king's own conservatism. Simultaneously, George V invested in styles of royal accessibility and informality that contrasted sharply with other major European dynasties, in a series of royal tours across the industrial heartlands of England and Wales in 1912 and 1913. Extensively covered by the national and imperial press and by the newsreels, these visits to the strongholds of laborism promoted a vision of patrician democracy that drew heavily on traditions of organic, one-nation conservatism. But they also positioned royalty and the people in a new imaginary relationship that was more personal and intimate. Both versions had long-term consequences for the British monarchy across the twentieth century.

Original Manuscript
Copyright © The North American Conference on British Studies 2019 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


1 “‘Compassionate’ Prince Harry Visits Flood-Hit Homes,” Lancashire Evening Post, 5 February 2016,

2 “Crowds Line Lancaster's Streets for Queen's Visit,” BBC News, 29 May 2015.

3 “Prince Charles Makes Permanent Base in Burnley,” Lancashire Telegraph, 18 May 2012,

4 Greg Lambert, “The Queen Visits Lancaster,” Visitor (Morecambe, Lancashire), 1 June 2015,

5 “Prince William and Kate Middleton Visit Lancashire,” BBC News, 11 April 2011,

6 See “The King Planting Copper Beech at Houghton Tower,” Manchester Guardian, supplement, 11 July 1913, 5A.

7 Bagehot, Walter, The English Constitution (London, 1867)Google Scholar.

8 Cannadine, David, “The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the ‘Invention of Tradition,’ c.1820–1977,” in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence (Cambridge, 1983), 101–64, at 108, 120Google Scholar. See also Cannadine, David and Price, Simon, eds. Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies (Cambridge, 1987)Google Scholar.

9 Bogdanor, Vernon, The Monarchy and the Constitution (Oxford, 1995), 34Google Scholar. See also Brazier, Rodney and Bogdanor, Vernon, The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 2003)Google Scholar; Nicholson, Harold, King George V: His Life and Reign (London, 1967)Google Scholar.

10 Prochaska, Frank, The Republic of Britain, 1760–2000 (London, 2000)Google Scholar; Prochaska, Frank, Royal Bounty: The Making of a Welfare Monarchy (New Haven, 1995)Google Scholar. See also Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina, “Prince Philip: Sportsman and Youth Leader,” in The Man behind the Throne: Male Consorts in History, ed. Been, Charles and Taylor, Miles (Basingstoke, 2014), 223–40Google Scholar.

11 See McKernan, Luke, Topical Budget: The Great British News Film (London, 1992), 117–22Google Scholar; McKernan, Luke, “‘The Finest Cinema Performers That We Possess’: British Royalty and the Newsreels, 1910–37,” Court Historian 8, no. 1 (July 2003): 5971CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mayhall, Laura E. Nym, “The Prince of Wales Versus Clark Gable: Anglophone Celebrity and Citizenship between the Wars,” Cultural and Social History 4, no. 4 (December 2007): 529–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Schwarzenbach, Alexis, “Love, Marriage and Divorce: American and European Reactions to the Abdication of Edward VIII,” in New Dangerous Liaisons: Discourses on Europe and Love in the Twentieth Century, ed. Passerini, Luisa, Ellena, Lilliana, and Geppert, Alexander (New York, 2010), 137–57Google Scholar.

12 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

13 Kuhn, William, Democratic Royalism: The Transformation of the British Monarchy, 1861–1914 (Basingstoke, 1996), 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

14 For imperial Russia, see Lieven, Dominic, Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia (London, 2015)Google Scholar; King, Greg, The Court of the Last Tsar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II (Hoboken, 2006)Google Scholar; Wortman, Richard, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in the Russian Monarchy, vol. 2, From Alexander II to the Abdication of Nicholas II (Princeton, 2000)Google Scholar. For Germany, see Röhl, John, The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany, trans. Cole, Terence (Cambridge, 1987)Google Scholar; Röhl, John, Wilhelm II: Into the Abyss of War and Exile, 1900–1941, trans. de Bellaigue, Sheila and Bridge, Roy (Cambridge, 2014)Google Scholar; Clark, Christopher, Kaiser Wilhelm II (Harlow, 2000)Google Scholar. For Austro-Hungary, see Bled, Jean-Paul, Franz Joseph, trans. Bridgeman, Teresa (Oxford, 1992)Google Scholar.

15 Nicholas, Alison, Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians: Her Life and Times (Bognor Regis, 1982), 5354Google Scholar; Potter, Frank, Belgium's Soldier King: Albert, King of the Belgians, 1909–1934 (Ilfracombe, 1994)Google Scholar.

16 Thompson, Dorothy, Queen Victoria: Gender and Power (London, 1990), 14Google Scholar.

17 Homans, Margaret, Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 (Chicago, 1998), chap. 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

18 Morris, Marilyn, The British Monarchy and the French Revolution (New Haven, 1998), 160–61Google Scholar. For differing interpretations of George III's public image, see Colley, Linda, “The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British Nation,” Past and Present 102, no. 1 (February 1984): 94129CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sack, James, From Jacobite to Conservative: Reaction and Orthodoxy in Britain, c. 1760–1832 (Cambridge, 1993), chap. 5Google Scholar.

19 Dangerfield, George, The Strange Death of Liberal England (1935; repr., Geneva, 1971)Google Scholar.

20 See McLean, Roderick, Royalty and Diplomacy in Europe, 1880–1914 (Cambridge, 2000), 193206Google Scholar; Nicholson, George V, 291–92; Pope-Hennessy, James, Queen Mary, 1867–1953 (London, 1959), 479–82Google Scholar.

21 Joyce, Patrick, Work, Society and Politics: The Culture of the Factory in Later Victorian England (Brighton, 1980), xxii, 279–80Google Scholar.

22 Plunkett, John, Queen Victoria: First Media Monarch (Oxford, 2003)Google Scholar.

23 George V Diary, 18 May 1910, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1910, Royal Archives, Windsor Castle (hereafter RA).

24 George V Diary, 11 November 1911 and 12 November 1911.

25 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 22 July 1914, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/94.

26 For accounts of the crisis that have been used here, see Dangerfield, Strange Death of Liberal England, 19–68; Nicholson, George V, chaps. 7, 9–10; Rose, Kenneth, King George V (London, 1983), chap. 5Google Scholar; Bogdanor, Monarchy and the Constitution, 113–35; Heffer, Simon, Power and Place: The Political Consequences of King Edward VII (London, 1998), 230–35, 275–97Google Scholar.

27 Lee, Sir Sidney, King Edward VII: A Biography, vol. 2, The Reign, 22nd January 1901 to 6th May 1910 (London, 1927), 455Google Scholar. See also Heffer, Power and Place, 304–5.

28 Lord Crewe to Lord Knollys, 19 April 1910 [marked confidential], RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/1/21.

29 Anson, William, The Law and Custom of the Constitution, part 2, The Crown, 2nd ed. (London, 1896), 55Google Scholar.

30 Windsor, Duke of, A King's Story: The Memoirs of H. R. H. the Duke of Windsor (London, 1998), 186–88Google Scholar.

31 Cannadine, David, George V: The Unexpected King (London, 2014)Google Scholar. See also H. H. Asquith to Margot Asquith, September 1912 (no day given), in H. H. Asquith: Letters to Venetia Stanley, ed. Michael and Eleanor Brock (Oxford, 1982), 43.

32 Rose, George V, 52, 69; Riddell, Lord, More Pages from My Diary, 1908–1914 (London, 1934), 218Google Scholar.

33 “The King and Queen: Royal Visit to Brighouse,” Brighouse Echo, 12 July 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/LII/722. See also Lockhart, J. G., Cosmo Gordon Lang (London, 1949), 217Google Scholar.

34 William M. Kuhn, “Bigge, Arthur John, Baron Stamfordham,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 3 January 2008, See also Ponsonby, Frederick, Recollections of Three Reigns (London, 1951), xGoogle Scholar.

35 Keith Grieves, “Stanley, Edward George Villiers, Seventeenth Earl of Derby,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 6 January 2011,; Seth-Smith, Michael, A Classic Connection: The Friendship of the Earl of Derby and the Hon. George Lambton, 1893–1945 (London, 1993)Google Scholar. For Liverpool politics, see Waller, Philip, Democracy and Sectarianism: A Political and Social History of Liverpool, 1869–1939 (Liverpool, 1981), 225–26Google Scholar.

36 Lord Derby to Lord Stamfordham, 28 April 1913 and 16 May 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/34, 38.

37 See Esher, Viscount, Journals and Letters of Reginald Viscount Esher, vol. 3, 1910–1915, ed. Oliver, , Esher, Viscount (London, 1938), 1517Google Scholar.

38 Pope-Hennessy, Queen Mary, 286.

39 Pope-Hennessy, 279, 424; Mabell, Countess of Airlie, Thatched with Gold: The Memories of Mabell, Countess of Airlie, ed. Ellis, Jennifer (London, 1962), 108–9Google Scholar.

40 Jennings, Ivor, Cabinet Government (Cambridge, 1959), 329CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Bogdanor, Monarchy and the Constitution, 68.

41 George, Lloyd to George, Margaret Lloyd, 16 September 1911, in Lloyd George Family Letters, 1885–1936, ed. Morgan, Kenneth (Cardiff, 1973), 158–59Google Scholar. See also Grigg, John, Lloyd George: The People's Champion, 1902–1911 (London, 1978), 305Google Scholar.

42 Green, E. H. H., Ideologies of Conservatism: Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 2002), 6970CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Green, E. H. H., The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914 (London, 1995)Google Scholar; Manton, Kevin, “Edwardian Conservatism and the Constitution: The Thought of Lord Hugh David Cecil,” Parliamentary History 34, no. 3 (October 2015): 365–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Thackeray, David, “Rethinking the Crisis of Edwardian Conservatism,” Historical Journal 54, no. 1 (March 2011): 191213CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Thackeray, David, Conservatism for the Democratic Age: Conservative Cultures and the Challenge of Mass Politics in Early Twentieth-Century England (Manchester, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Ridley, Jane, “The Unionist Social Reform Committee, 1911–1914: Wets before the Deluge,” Historical Journal 30, no. 2 (June 1987): 391413CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

43 See Lawrence, Jon, “Paternalism, Class, and the British Path to Modernity,” in The Peculiarities of Liberal Modernity in Imperial Britain, ed. Gunn, Simon and Vernon, James (Berkeley, 2011), 147–64Google Scholar, at 147; David Thackeray, Conservatism for the Democratic Age, 55.

44 Lockhart, Lang, 141–42, 216–17; Beaken, Robert, Cosmo Lang: Archbishop in War and Crisis (London, 2012), 6871Google Scholar, 74–77.

45 Cosmo Lang to Mrs. H. Lang, 14 July 1912, Lang Papers, Family Papers, 1882–1920, vol. 188, 84, 101, Lambeth Palace Library, London; Beaken, Cosmo Lang, 71.

46 Beaken, Cosmo Lang, 71.

47 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

48 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 172.

49 Lloyd George to Margaret Lloyd George, 9 May 1910, in Lloyd George Family Letters, 152. See also Grigg, Lloyd George, 216.

50 See Béliard, Yann, “Introduction: Revisiting the Great Labour Unrest, 1911–1914,” Labour History Review 79, no. 1 (April 2014): 117CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

51 Thompson, James, “The Great Labour Unrest and Political Thought in Britain, 1911–1914,” Labour History Review 79, no.1 (April 2014): 3753CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 38.

52 Fritz Ponsonby to Winston Churchill, 16 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/1. See also Davies, Sam and Noon, Ron, “The Rank-and-File in the 1911 Liverpool General Transport Strike,” Labour History Review 79, no. 1 (April 2014): 5580CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

53 Winston Churchill to George V, telegram, 17 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/3; Dudley Ward to George V, telegram, 17 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/2.

54 See Nicholson, George V, 157.

55 Winston Churchill to George V, telegram, 20 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/18; George V to Churchill, telegram, 20 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/246/19.

56 G. R. Askwith to Stamfordham, 25 January 1912, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/B/350/4.

57 Heath, Alison, The Life of George Ranken Askwith, 1861–1942 (London, 2013), 131–38Google Scholar.

58 Heath, The Life of George Ranken Askwith, 125.

59 Nicholson, George V, 223–24; Rose, George V, 148.

60 Nicholson, George V, 223–24. See also aan de Wiel, Jérôme, “1914: What Will the British Do? The Irish Home Rule Crisis in the July Crisis,” International History Review 37, no. 4 (August 2015): 657–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

61 Speech of King to Buckingham Palace Conference, Ireland, 21 July 1914, Lloyd George Papers, LG/C/5/6/7, Parliamentary Archives, London. See also George V Diary, 21 July 1914, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1914.

62 Nicholson, George V, 157, 416–21; Rose, George V, 119, 139, 340–43.

63 Cannadine, George V, 52–53.

64 Sir George Armstrong to Stamfordham, 11 August 1911, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/2/74.

65 Major Clive Wigram, memo, 15 November 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/1/57.

66 Sir Arthur Bigge, memorandum, 18 November 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/2/94. See also Extract of a Letter from Lord Esher to Lord Knollys, 1 March 1910, RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2552/1/16.

67 Bostridge, Mark, The Fateful Year: England 1914 (London, 2014), 158Google Scholar.

68 Judith Dray, “A Story from the Archive: A Royal Visit and a Suffragette,”; “Suffragette Protests at Llandaff,” South Wales Echo, 26 June 1912.

69 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 21 February 1913, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/44; George V Diary, 4 June 1914, RA GV/PRIV/GVD/1914.

70 Tickner, Lisa, The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907–14 (London, 1987)Google Scholar.

71 See Chomet, Seweryn, Helena: Princess Reclaimed: The Life and Times of Queen Victoria's Third Daughter (New York, 1999)Google Scholar; Wake, Jehanne, Princess Louise: Queen Victoria's Unconventional Daughter (London, 1988)Google Scholar; Hawksley, Lucinda, The Mystery of Princess Louise: Queen Victoria's Rebellious Daughter (London, 2014)Google Scholar.

72 Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Mary Macarthur: A Biographical Sketch (London, 1925), 137–38Google Scholar; Hamilton, Mary Agnes, Margaret Bondfield (London, 1924), 108–9Google Scholar. See also Braybon, Gail, Women Workers in the First World War: The British Experience (London, 1981), 4445Google Scholar.

73 See Murphy, Philip, Monarchy and the End of Empire: The House of Windsor, the British Government and the Postwar Commonwealth (Oxford, 2013), 1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

74 “Third Chapter Contrast. King in Glamorgan Valleys,” South Wales Daily News, 24 May 1912, 5.

75 H. H. Asquith to George V, 6 March 1912, Cabinet Letters: Copies of Asquith's Cabinet Letters to the King, 1908–1916, Papers of Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, mainly 1892–1928, A2 MS Asquith 5, Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.

76 See the letters and memoranda in RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/1, and RA PS/PSO/GV/C/K/2522/2.

77 Programme for the Visit of the King and Queen to Wentworth, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/7175. See also the exchanges between Derby and Stamfordham, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/13, 34, 38.

78 See Bailey, Catherine, Black Diamonds: The Rise and Fall of a Great English Dynasty (London, 2008), 114Google Scholar.

79 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 113–14; Asquith to the king, Cabinet, 6 March 1912, Asquith Papers, A2 MS Asquith 6.

80 “The King's Visit,” Western Mail (Cardiff), 6 June 1912, 4.

81 Joyce, Patrick, Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, c. 1848–1914 (Cambridge, 1991), 11CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

82 See King George V, Books Read from 1890, RA GV/PRIV/AA7/46.

83 Quoted in “The King and the Workers ‘One Common Weel for the Common Good,’” Daily Express (London), 25 June 1912, 1.

84 “The King and the Workers.”

85 “The King's Birthday,” Register (Adelaide), 3 June 1912, and “King's Birthday,” Mirror (Trinidad), 3 June 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/XLVII/1397, 1399.

86 Potter, Simon, News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System, 1876–1922 (Oxford, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

87 Simonis, H., The Street of Ink: An Intimate History of Journalism (London, 1917), 181–82Google Scholar.

88 “King and Cardiff. Forthcoming Royal Visit,” South Wales Daily News, 20 May 1912, 5.

89 Derby to Stamfordham, 28 January 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/13-16.

90 Derby to Stamfordham, 16 May 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/38.

91 Mansel, Philip, Dressed to Rule: Royal Court and Costume from Louis XIV to Elizabeth II (New Haven, 2005), 142Google Scholar; Hibbert, Christopher, The Court of St James's: The Monarch at Work from Victoria to Elizabeth II (London, 1979), 7778Google Scholar.

92 Royal Visit to Bolton, July 1913, producer, Electric Cinema Bolton, film no. 33, North West Film Archive, Manchester Central Library. On the genesis of the royal wave, see Owens, Edward, “All the World Loves a Lover: Monarchy, Mass Media, and the 1934 Royal Wedding of Prince George and Princess Marina,” English Historical Review 133, no. 562 (June 2018): 597633CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

93 See Morgan, Kenneth, Keir Hardie: Radical and Socialist (Oxford, 1967), 24Google Scholar; Holman, Bob, Keir Hardie: Labour's Greatest Hero? (Oxford, 2010), 162Google Scholar; Ward, Paul, Red Flag and Union Jack: Englishness, Patriotism and the British Left, 1881–1924 (Woodbridge, 1998), 99Google Scholar.

94 Keir Hardie, “An Open Letter. To His Most Gracious Majesty King George the Fifth, on his Proposed Visit to Dowlais Ironworks,” republished in Rhondda Socialist, 22 June 1912, 2. See also Keir Hardie's Speeches and Writings, ed. Hughes, Emrys (Glasgow, 1923), 155–58Google Scholar.

95 “Royal Visit to Dowlais,” South Wales Daily News, 19 June 1912, RA NEWS/PRESS/GV/MAIN/1912/XLV/909-10.

96 “Dowlais Schemes,” South Wales Daily News, 22 June 1912, 8.

97 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 29 June 1912, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/20.

98 Queen Mary to Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 14 July 1912, RA QM/PRIV/CC26/22.

99 “Yesterday's Tour of the King and Queen,” Manchester Guardian, supplement, 11 July 1913, 2A.

100 “The Royal Tour,” Liverpool Daily Post and Liverpool Mercury, 10 July 1913, 7.

101 Barker, T. C., The Glassmakers: Pilkington: The Rise of an International Company, 1826–1976 (London, 1977), 181241Google Scholar.

102 “The Royal Visit to Pilkington's Works,” St. Helen's Newspaper and Advertiser, 11 July 1913, 8; Barker, Glassmakers, 203.

103 At Messers. Pilkington's Glass Works, July 1913, producer, Weisker Brothers, film no. 138, North West Film Archive; Geoff Senior, “A Right Royal Tour of Lancashire,” unpublished paper, North West Film Archive (2013).

104 “King Visits the Miners,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

105 “Visit to Horrockses: Triumphal Arch of Cotton Bales,” Lancashire Daily Post, 8 July 1913, 4.

106 “Kind Is My Mary,” Daily Express (London), 11 July 1912, 5.

107 For early modern royal tours and progresses, see Vale, Malcolm, The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe, 1270–1380 (Oxford, 2003)Google Scholar.

108 See Reynolds, K. D. and Matthew, H. C. G., Queen Victoria (Oxford, 2007), 9Google Scholar; Longford, Elizabeth, Victoria R. I. (London, 1983), 4143Google Scholar, 47–48; Gardiner, Juliet, Queen Victoria (London, 1997), 2425Google Scholar.

109 See Manchester Evening News, Royal Manchester: From Victoria to Diana (Manchester, 1998), 6, 9–13; “The Queen's Visits to Manchester, 1851, 1857, 1894,” Manchester Guardian, obituary supplement, 23 January 1901, 12.

110 Gunn, Simon, The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class: Ritual and Authority and the English Industrial City, 1840–1914 (Manchester, 2000), 166–67Google Scholar.

111 Manchester Evening News, Royal Manchester, 15–16; Salford City Council, Official Programme—Visit to Manchester of His Majesty King Edward VII and Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, on Thursday 13th July 1905 (Salford City Council, 1905)Google Scholar.

112 Derby to Stamfordham, 28 April 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/34.

113 “The Personality of Royalty,” Birmingham Gazette, 27 June 1912, 4.

114 Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (London, 1992), 233Google Scholar.

115 See Wiener, Joel, “‘Get the News! Get the News!’—Speed in Transatlantic Journalism, 1830–1914,” in Anglo-American Media Interactions, 1850–2000, ed. Wiener, Joel and Hampton, Mark (Basingstoke, 2007), 4861CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Symon, J. D., The Press and Its Story (London, 1914), 106Google Scholar; Fyfe, Hamilton, Sixty Years of Fleet Street (London, 1949), 36Google Scholar; LeMahieu, D. L., A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars (Oxford, 1988), 11, 2526Google Scholar.

116 See “Edward the Peacemaker at Peace: The Late King Photographed on His Death-Bed at Buckingham Palace,” Daily Mirror, 14 May 1910, 1; Simonis, Street of Ink, 80–81.

117 Chalaby, Jean, The Invention of Journalism (Basingstoke, 1998), 7678CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Wiener, Joel, “How New Was the New Journalism?” in Papers for the Millions: The New Journalism in Britain, 1850s to 1914, ed. Wiener, Joel (New York, 1988), 4771Google Scholar. See also Matheson, Donald, “The Birth of News Discourse: Changes in News Language in British Newspapers, 1860–1930,” Media, Culture and Society 22, no. 5 (2000): 557–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

118 Rosemary T. Van Arschel, “Women's Periodicals and the New Journalism: The Personal Interview,” in Wiener, Papers for the Millions, 243–56, at 245.

119 See “King George V” frontispiece portrait, Illustrated London News, Coronation Record Number, ed. Bruce Ingram (London , 1911); George V, One Penny Stamp, 1911–12, Downey Head Issues, Stamp Collecting World, British Stamps Definitives of 1911–1922,

120 “The Royal Visit to Yorkshire,” Leeds Mercury, 11 June 1912, 4; “The King-Comforter,” Pall Mall Gazette, 10 July 1912, 6.

121 Yorkshire Observer and Advertiser, 17 May 1912, 8.

122 Esher, quoted in Rose, George V, 90.

123 “The Queen in a Miner's Home,” Daily Express (London), 28 June 1912, 1; “The Queen Leaving a Cottage Near Bury,” Daily Mirror (London), 14 July 1913, 9.

124 “Collier-Host of the King and Queen” and “In Lowly Homes,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

125 “In Lowly Homes,” South Wales Daily News, 28 June 1912, 7.

126 Stamfordham to Derby, 31 January 1913, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/5721/17.

127 Dowlais Central Infants School Log Book, 400, EMT9/1, Merthyr Tydfil Division Elementary/Primary School Records, Glamorgan Archives.

128 North Hulme Secondary School for Boys, Boy's Department, 27, Manchester School Records, School Log Books, M66/18/1/1/1, Manchester Central Library.

129 “The Royal Visit,” Liverpool Daily Post and Mercury, 2 July 1913, 5; “To Welcome the King to Lancashire,” Manchester Daily Dispatch, 2 July 1913, 5.

130 Prochaska, Royal Bounty, 18. See also Colley, Britons, 240–41.

131 Poliakoff, Stephen, The Lost Prince (London, 2003); Dennis Judd, George VI (London, 2012), 1517Google Scholar.

132 “Pageant in the Streets,” South Wales Daily News, 26 June 1912, 7.

133 “Pageant in the Streets.”

134 “In the Colliery District,” Dewsbury Reporter, 12 July 1912, 2.

135 Programme, Tuesday, 9 July 1912, RA PS/PSO/GV/PS/MAIN/7175.

136 “King and Queen in Yorkshire,” Daily Telegraph (London), 10 July 1912, 13; “The King in a Coal Mine,” Daily Mail (Hull), 10 July 1912, 3.

137 Quoted in “In the Colliery District,” 2, and “The King in a Coal Mine,” 3.

138 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 73.

139 Bailey, Black Diamonds, 79.

140 “Queen in Tears,” Daily Express (London), 10 July 1912, 1.

141 “Cadeby Heroes Interred,” Leeds Mercury, 13 July 1912, 5; “The Royal Week,” Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 8 July 1912, 6.

142 “The German Emperor Follows the Example of King George,” Daily Mirror (London), 13 August 1912, 1.

143 See, for example, Francis Addy Diary, 19 March 1916, MLMSS 1607/1, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales; Ivo Lucius Beresford, sound recording, cat. no. 18564, reel 2, Imperial War Museum, London.

144 For discussion of early cinema audiences, see Biltereyst, Daniel, Maltby, Richard, and Meers, Philippe, eds., Cinema, Audiences and Modernity: New Perspectives on European Cinema History (London, 2012)Google Scholar.

145 See McKernan, Topical Budget; Low, Rachael, The History of the British Film, 1906–1914 (London, 1997), 14Google Scholar.

146 McKernan, Topical Budget, 117–18.

147 “Films of the Royal Visit to Wales,” Bioscope, 11 July 1912, 101.

148 “Hibbert's Again to the Fore,” Bioscope, 24 July 1913, 246.

149 Vicki Caren, “Weisker Brothers, Merseyside at War, 1914–1918”,

150 Royal Visit to Lancashire, July 1913, producer, Pathe, film no. 157, North West Film Archive.

151 Old Grimwade's Winton King George V & Queen Mary Visit to Padiham Mug, July 1913, accessed 6 August 2018,

152 See Gunning, Tom, “Pictures of Crowd Splendour: The Mitchell and Kenyon Factory Gate Films,” in The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon: Edwardian Britain on Film, ed. Toulmin, Vanessa, Popple, Simon, and Russell, Patrick (London, 2004), 4958Google Scholar; Dave Russell, “The Football Films,” in Toulmin, Popple, and Russell, The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon, 169–80.

153 Royal Visit to Bacup, 9 July 1913, producer, Lama Films, film no. 5985, North West Film Archive.

154 Royal Visit to Atherton, July 1913, producer, Will Onda, film no. 547, North West Film Archive.

155 Turvey, Gerry, “Ideological Contradictions: The Film Topicals of the British and Colonial Kinematograph Company,” Early Popular Visual Culture 5, no. 1 (April 2007): 4156CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

156 Stephen Bottomore, “From the Factory Gate to the ‘Home Talent’ Drama: An International Overview of Local Films in the Silent Era,” in Toulmin, Lost World, 33–48.

157 Low, History of the British Film, 25.

158 “Happenings at Accrington,” Bioscope, 31 July 1913, 323; “Olympia Picture,” Mildura Cultivator (Australia), 10 September 1913, 5.

159 Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England.

160 Woolf, Virginia, Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown (London, 1924)Google Scholar; Todd, Selina, The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class (London, 2014)Google Scholar, introduction, Kindle.

161 “Vile Attack on the King,” Daily Telegraph (London), 24 July 1914, 12.

Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Safe for Democracy: Constitutional Politics, Popular Spectacle, and the British Monarchy 1910–1914
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Safe for Democracy: Constitutional Politics, Popular Spectacle, and the British Monarchy 1910–1914
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Safe for Democracy: Constitutional Politics, Popular Spectacle, and the British Monarchy 1910–1914
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *