Extrinsic factors such as maternal microbiota, bacterial load of the environment, diet and medication modulate the intestinal microbiota. Maturation and function of the immune system is influenced by established gut microbiota. In this work we describe the immunological effects of the dietary deprivation of fermented foods of healthy volunteers. Significant decreases in faecal lactobacillus and total aerobes counts and concentration of short chain fatty acids were observed following deprivation of fermented food of the normal diet. Moreover, a decrease in phagocytic activity in leukocytes was observed after two weeks of restricted diet. Therefore, the dietary deprivation of fermented foods could induce a decrease in innate immune response that might affect the capacity to respond against infections. The ingestion of a probiotic product containing the strains Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 or a standard yogurt containing a conventional starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus counteracted the fall in the immune response, although the probiotic product was more effective than the standard yogurt.
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