Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats

  • Manuela Renna (a1), Carola Lussiana (a1), Paolo Cornale (a1), Luca Maria Battaglini (a1), Riccardo Fortina (a1) and Antonio Mimosi (a1)...
Abstract

This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0·001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0·001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*For correspondence; e-mail: manuela.renna@unito.it
References
Hide All
Alves, SP, Cabrita, ARJ, Fonseca, AJM & Bessa, RJB 2008 Improved method for fatty acid analysis in herbage based on direct transesterification followed by solid-phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography A 1209 212219
Alves, SP, Maia, MRG, Bessa, RJB, Fonseca, AJM & Cabrita, ARJ 2012 Identification of C18 intermediates formed during stearidonic acid biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms in vitro. Lipids 47 171183
AOAC 2000 Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 17th edition. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem
Bainbridge, ML, Lock, AL & Kraft, J 2015 Lipid-encapsulated Echium oil (Echium plantagineum) increases the content of stearidonic acid in plasma lipid fractions and milk fat of dairy cows. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 48274835
Bernal-Santos, G, O'Donnell, AM, Vicini, JL, Hartnell, GF & Bauman, DE 2010 Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans. Journal of Dairy Science 93 3237
Bernard, L, Leroux, C & Chilliard, Y 2008 Characterisation and nutritional regulation of the main lipogenic genes in the ruminant lactating mammary gland. In Bioactive Components of Milk, pp. 67108 vol. 606 (Ed. Bosze, Z). New York: Springer-Verlag
Bernard, L, Leroux, C & Chilliard, Y 2013 Expression and nutritional regulation of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes in the ruminant mammary gland: relationship with milk fatty acid composition. In Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Genes in Lipid Metabolism, pp. 161193 (Ed. Ntambi, JM). New York: Springer-Verlag
Bernard, L, Leroux, C, Rouel, J, Delavaud, C, Shingfield, KJ & Chilliard, Y 2014 Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats. Animal 10 112
Bernard, L, Rouel, J, Leroux, C, Ferlay, A, Faulconnier, Y, Legrand, P & Chilliard, Y 2005 Mammary lipid metabolism and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed vegetable lipids. Journal of Dairy Science 88 14781489
Chilliard, Y, Glasser, F, Ferlay, A, Bernard, L, Rouel, J & Doreau, M 2007 Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109 828855
Cozma, A, Andrei, S, Pintea, A, Miere, D, Filip, L, Loghin, F & Ferlay, A 2015 Effect of hemp seed oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile, liver function, milk fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A concentrations in Carpathian goats. Czech Journal of Animal Science 60 289301
Field, CJ, Blewett, HH, Proctor, S & Vine, D 2009 Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 34 979991
Fievez, V, Colman, E, Castro-Montoya, JM, Stefanov, I & Vlaeminck, B 2012 Milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids as biomarkers of rumen function—An update. Animal Feed Science and Technology 172 5165
Kemp, P & Lander, DJ 1983 The hydrogenation of γ-linolenic acid by pure cultures of two rumen bacteria. Biochemical Journal 216 519522
Kitessa, SM, Gulati, SK, Ashes, JR, Fleck, E, Scott, TW & Nichols, PD 2001 Utilisation of fish oil in ruminants II. Transfer of fish oil fatty acids into goats’ milk. Animal Feed Science and Technology 89 201208
Kitessa, SM, Nichols, PD & Abeywardena, M 2011 Purple viper's bugloss (Echium plantagineum) seed oil in human health. In Nuts & Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, pp. 951958 (Eds Preedy, VR, Watson, RR & Patel, VB). Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V
Kitessa, SM & Young, P 2009 Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in enriching poultry meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. British Journal of Nutrition 101 709715
Kitessa, SM & Young, P 2011 Enriching milk fat with n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by supplementing grazing dairy cows with ruminally protected Echium oil. Animal Feed Science and Technology 170 3544
Kris-Etherton, PM, Grieger, JA & Etherton, TD 2009 Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 81 99104
Lee, YJ & Jenkins, TC 2011 Biohydrogenation of linolenic acid to stearic acid by the rumen microbial population yields multiple intermediate conjugated diene isomers. Journal of Nutrition 141 14451450
Lim, JN, Oh, JJ, Wang, T, Lee, J-S, Kim, S-H, Kim, Y-J & Lee, H-G 2014 Trans-11 18:1 vaccenic acid (TVA) has a direct anti-carcinogenic effect on MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Nutrients 6 627636
Littell, RC, Henry, PR & Ammerman, CB 1998 Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. Journal of Animal Science 76 12161231
Lock, AL, Kraft, J, Rice, BH & Bauman, DE 2012 Biosynthesis and biological activity of rumenic acid: a natural CLA isomer. In Trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, pp. 195230 (Eds Destaillats, F, Sébédio, J-L, Dionisi, F & Chardigny, J-M). Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing
Maia, MRG, Correia, CAS, Alves, SP, Fonseca, AJM & Cabrita, ARJ 2012 Technical note: Stearidonic acid metabolism by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. Journal of Animal Science 90 900904
Martínez Marín, AL, Pérez Hernández, M, Pérez Alba, LM, Carrión Pardo, D, Garzón Sigler, AI & Gómez Castro, G 2013 Fat addition in the diet of dairy ruminants and its effects on productive parameters. Colombian Journal of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine 26 6978
Niwińska, B 2010 Endogenous synthesis of rumenic acid in humans and cattle. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 19 171182
Nudda, A, Battacone, G, Atzori, AS, Dimauro, C, Rassu, SPG, Nicolussi, P, Bonelli, P & Pulina, G 2013 Effect of extruded linseed supplementation on blood metabolic profile and milk performance of Saanen goats. Animal 7 14641471
Patterson, E, Wall, R, Fitzgerald, GF, Ross, RP & Stanton, C 2012 Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2012 539426
Renna, M, Cornale, P, Lussiana, C, Malfatto, V, Fortina, R, Mimosi, A & Battaglini, LM 2012 Use of Pisum sativum (L.) as alternative protein resource in diets for dairy sheep: effects on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile. Small Ruminant Research 102 142150
Renna, M, Gasmi-Boubaker, A, Lussiana, C, Battaglini, LM, Belfayez, K & Fortina, R 2014 Fatty acid composition of the seed oils of selected Vicia L. taxa from Tunisia. Italian Journal of Animal Science 13 308316
SAS Institute Inc 2008 SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 9·1·3. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute
Siri-Tarino, PW, Sun, Q, Hu, FB & Krauss, RM 2010 Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 12 384390
Swanson, D, Block, R & Mousa, SA 2012 Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition 3 17
Toral, PG, Rouel, J, Bernard, L & Chilliard, Y 2014 Interaction between fish oil and plant oils or starchy concentrates in the diet: effects on dairy performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology 198 6782
Toral, PG, Chilliard, Y, Rouel, J, Leskinen, H, Shingfield, KJ & Bernard, L 2015 Comparison of the nutritional regulation of milk fat secretion and composition in cows and goats. Journal of Dairy Science 98 72777297
Tsiplakou, E & Zervas, G 2013 The effect of fish and soybean oil inclusion in goat diet on their milk and plasma fatty acid profile. Livestock Science 155 236243
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB & Lewis, BA 1991 Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74 35833597
Walker, CG, Jebb, SA, Calder, PC & Phil, D 2013 Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health. Nutrition 29 363369
Wang, X, Lin, H & Gu, Y 2012 Multiple roles of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid against proliferation diseases. Lipids in Health and Disease 11 25
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Dairy Research
  • ISSN: 0022-0299
  • EISSN: 1469-7629
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-dairy-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed