Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis

  • Juliano Leonel Gonçalves (a1) (a2), Roberta L. Lyman (a1), Mitchell Hockett (a3), Rudy Rodriguez (a3), Marcos Veiga dos Santos (a2) and Kevin L. Anderson (a1)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.
Abstract

This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or – negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive.

In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*For Correspondence; e-mail: kevin_anderson@ncsu.edu
References
Hide All
Arruda, AG, Godden, S, Rapnicki, P, Gorden, P, Timms, L, Aly, SS, Lehenbauer, TW & Champagne, J 2013 Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: I. Quarter-level outcomes. Journal of Dairy Science 96 44194435
Bansal, BK, Hamann, J, Grabowskit, NT & Singh, KB 2005 Variation in the composition of selected milk fraction samples from healthy and mastitic quarters, and its significance for mastitis diagnosis. Journal of Dairy Research 72 144152
Barreiro, JR, Ferreira, CR, Sanvido, GB, Kostrzewa, M, Maier, T, Wegemann, B, Bottcher, V, Eberlin, MN & dos Santos, MV 2010 Short communication: identification of subclinical cow mastitis pathogens in milk by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Dairy Science 93 56615667
Dohoo, I, Andersen, S, Dingwell, R, Hand, K, Kelton, D, Leslie, K, Schukken, Y & Godden, S 2011 Diagnosing intramammary infections: comparison of multiple versus single quarter milk samples for the identification of intramammary infections in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 94 55155522
Dosogne, H, Vangroenweghe, F, Mehrzad, J, Massart-Leen, AM & Burvenich, C 2003 Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk. Journal of Dairy Science 86 828834
Dulin, AM, Paape, MJ & Weinland, BT 1982 Cytospin centrifuge in differential counts of milk somatic cells. Journal of Dairy Science 65 12471251
DVG (German Veterinary Society). 2002. Leitlinien zur Bekämpfung der Mastitis als Bestandsproblem. Giessen, Germany: DVG.
Halasa, T, Nielen, M, De Roos, AP, Van Hoorne, R, de Jong, G, Lam, TJ, van Werven, T & Hogeveen, H 2009 Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated with a test-day model. Journal of Dairy Science 92 599606
Hand, KJ, Godkin, A & Kelton, DF 2012 Milk production and somatic cell counts: a cow-level analysis. Journal of Dairy Science 95 13581362
Hockett, M, Payne, M & Rodriguez, R 2014a Evaluation of cow-level selective dry cow therapy based on diagnosis by milk leukocyte differential. In National Mastitis Council Regional Meeting Proceedings, Ghent, BE. Madison, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.. p. 207
Hockett, M, Payne, M & Rodriguez, R 2014b Milk Leukocyte Differential as a Tool to Guide Quarter-Level, Selective Dry Cow Therapy. Madison, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.. p. 208
Kelly, AL, Tiernan, D, O'Sullivan, C & Joyce, P 2000 Correlation between bovine milk somatic cell count and polymorphonuclear leukocyte level for samples of bulk milk and milk from individual cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83 300304
Makovec, JA & Ruegg, PL 2003 Results of milk samples submitted for microbiological examination in Wisconsin from 1994 to 2001. Journal of Dairy Science 86 34663472
MedCalc Statistical Software version 16·8. 2016. Accessed Aug. 4, 2016. https://www.medcalc.org/calc/diagnostic_test.php.
Oliver, SPO, González, RN, Hogan, JS, Jayarao, BM & Owens, WE 2004 Microbiological Procedures for the Diagnosis of bovine udder infection and determination of milk quality. In Oliver, SPO, González, RN, Hogan, JS, Jayarao, BM & Owens, WE (Eds) A Global Organization for Mastitis Control and Milk Quality , 4th ed., pp. 140, 44–46. Verona, WI, USA: National Mastitis Council Inc.
Pilla, R, Schwarz, D, Konig, S & Piccinini, R 2012 Microscopic differential cell counting to identify inflammatory reactions in dairy cow quarter milk samples. Journal of Dairy Science 95 44104420
Pilla, R, Malvisi, M, Snel, GG, Schwarz, D, Konig, S, Czerny, CP & Piccinini, R 2013 Differential cell count as an alternative method to diagnose dairy cow mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science 96 16531660
Pillai, SR, Kunze, E, Sordillo, LM & Jayarao, BM 2001 Application of differential inflammatory cell count as a tool to monitor udder health. Journal of Dairy Science 84 14131420
Pitkala, A, Haveri, M, Pyorala, S, Myllys, V & Honkanen-Buzalski, T 2004 Bovine mastitis in Finland 2001 – prevalence, distribution of bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Dairy Science 87 24332441
Reneau, JK & Packard, VL 1991 Monitoring mastitis, milk quality and economic losses in dairy fields. Dairy, Food, and Environmental Sanitation (11) 411
Schwarz, D, Diesterbeck, US, Konig, S, Brugemann, K, Schlez, K, Zschock, M, Wolter, W & Czerny, CP 2011a Flow cytometric differential cell counts in milk for the evaluation of inflammatory reactions in clinically healthy and subclinically infected bovine mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Science 94 50335044
Schwarz, D, Diesterbeck, US, Konig, S, Brugemann, K, Schlez, K, Zschock, M, Wolter, W & Czerny, CP 2011b Microscopic differential cell counts in milk for the evaluation of inflammatory reactions in clinically healthy and subclinically infected bovine mammary glands. Journal of Dairy Research 78 448455
Tomazi, T, Goncalves, JL, Barreiro, JR, Arcari, MA & Dos Santos, MV 2015 Bovine subclinical intramammary infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci increases somatic cell count but has no effect on milk yield or composition. Journal of Dairy Science 98 30713078
Wilson, DJ, Gonzalez, RN & Das, HH 1997 Bovine mastitis pathogens in New York and Pennsylvania: prevalence and effects on somatic cell count and milk production. Journal of Dairy Science 80 25922598
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Dairy Research
  • ISSN: 0022-0299
  • EISSN: 1469-7629
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-dairy-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Gonçalves supplementary material
Gonçalves supplementary material 1

 PDF (428 KB)
428 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed