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    Li, Zhen Liu, Hongyun Jin, Xiaolu Lo, Lijan and Liu, Jianxin 2012. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation. BMC Genomics, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 731.

    Harrison, Roger 2006. Milk xanthine oxidase: Properties and physiological roles. International Dairy Journal, Vol. 16, Issue. 6, p. 546.

    McManaman, J. L. Palmer, C. A. Wright, R. M. and Neville, M. C. 2002. Functional regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase expression and localization in the mouse mammary gland: evidence of a role in lipid secretion. The Journal of Physiology, Vol. 545, Issue. 2, p. 567.

    McManaman, J.L. Hanson, L. Neville, M.C. and Wright, R.M. 2000. Lactogenic Hormones Regulate Xanthine Oxidoreductase and β-Casein Levels in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Distinct Mechanisms. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 373, Issue. 2, p. 318.

    McManaman, J.L. Neville, M.C. and Wright, R.M. 1999. Mouse Mammary Gland Xanthine Oxidoreductase: Purification, Characterization, and Regulation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 371, Issue. 2, p. 308.


Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase in mammary gland of mouse: relationship to mammogenesis and lactogenesis in vivo and in vitro

  • Thomas J. Hayden (a1), Denise Brennan (a1), Katherine Quirke (a1) and Paddie Murphy (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2009

Xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XO/XDH) increases at mid gestation in mammary gland but not in liver of the mouse and remains elevated until the pups are weaned at 20 d post partum. The increase in enzyme activity is due neither to alteration in activators or inhibitors nor to a production of a variant enzyme with altered catalytic properties. The increase is preceded in vivo by a surge of prolactin-like activity (placental lactogen) in plasma, and prolactin is required for induction of XO/XDH in explant culture in vitro. Induction of XO/XDH in vivo and in vitro precedes the full histological differentiation of the gland. In addition, induction of XO/XDH in vitro occurs more rapidly and at lower concentrations of prolactin than does histological differentiation. Thus although XO/XDH is present in milk, increased XO/XDH activity is an early event in mammogenesis in vivo and in vitro rather than a terminal component of differentiation.

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Journal of Dairy Research
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