1.Shaw, JE, Sicree, RA, Zimmet, PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 87, 4–14.
2.Yajnik, CS. The insulin resistance epidemic in India: fetal origins, later lifestyle, or both? Nutr Rev. 2001; 59, 1–9.
3.Jayawardena, R, Ranasinghe, P, Byrne, NM, Soares, MJ, Katulanda, P, Hills, AP. Prevalence and trends of the diabetes epidemic in South Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12, 380.
4.Misra, A, Khurana, L. The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009; 7, 497–514.
5.LaMonte, MJ, Blair, SN, Church, TS. Physical activity and diabetes prevention. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005; 99, 1205–1213.
6.Sieverdes, JC, Sui, X, Lee, D, et al. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study of men. Br J Sports Med. 2010; 44, 238–244.
7.Wild, S, Roglic, G, Green, A, Sicree, R, King, H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27, 1047–1053.
8.DeFronzo, RA. From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2009; 58, 773–795.
9.Seshiah, V, Balaji, V, Balaji, MS, Paneerselvam, A, Kapur, A. Pregnancy and diabetes scenario around the world: India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009; 104(Suppl. 1), S35–S38.
10.Yajnik, CS. Nutrient-mediated teratogenesis and fuel-mediated teratogenesis: two pathways of intrauterine programming of diabetes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009; 104(Suppl. 1), S27–S31.
11.Hales, CN, Barker, DJ, Clark, PM, et al. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ. 1991; 303, 1019–1022.
12.Liew, C-F, Seah, E-S, Yeo, K-P, Lee, K-O, Wise, SD. Lean, nondiabetic Asian Indians have decreased insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance, and raised leptin compared to Caucasians and Chinese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003; 27, 784–789.
13.Banerji, MA, Faridi, N, Atluri, R, Chaiken, RL, Lebovitz, HE. Body composition, visceral fat, leptin, and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84, 137–144.
14.Chandalia, M, Lin, P, Seenivasan, T, et al. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men. PloS One. 2007; 2, e812.
15.Chandalia, M, Abate, N, Garg, A, Stray-Gundersen, J, Grundy, SM. Relationship between generalized and upper body obesity to insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84, 2329–2335.
16.Desai, M, Hales, CN. Role of fetal and infant growth in programming metabolism in later life. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1997; 72, 329–348.
17.Hales, CN, Barker, DJ. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Br Med Bull. 2001; 60, 5–20.
18.Jones, RH, Ozanne, SE. Fetal programming of glucose-insulin metabolism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009; 297, 4–9.
19.Brøns, C, Jacobsen, S, Hiscock, N, et al. Effects of high-fat overfeeding on mitochondrial function, glucose and fat metabolism, and adipokine levels in low-birth-weight subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 302, E43–E51.
20.Thomas, N, Grunnet, LG, Poulsen, P, et al. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India: what are the metabolic consequences 20 years later? Eur J Endocrinol. 2012; 166, 647–655.
21.Barker, DJ, Hales, CN, Fall, CH, Osmond, C, Phipps, K, Clark, PM. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia. 1993; 36, 62–67.
22.Phillips, DI, Barker, DJ, Hales, CN, Hirst, S, Osmond, C. Thinness at birth and insulin resistance in adult life. Diabetologia. 1994; 37, 150–154.
23.Borghouts, LB, Keizer, HA. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21, 1–12.
24.Nishida, Y, Higaki, Y, Tokuyama, K, et al. Effect of mild exercise training on glucose effectiveness in healthy men. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24, 1008–1013.
25.Krotkiewski, M, Lönnroth, P, Mandroukas, K, et al. The effects of physical training on insulin secretion and effectiveness and on glucose metabolism in obesity and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1985; 28, 881–890.
26.Dela, F, Stallknecht, B. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 299, E80–E91.
27.Poehlman, ET, Denino, WF, Beckett, T, et al. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87, 1004–1009.
28.Lo, MS, Lin, LLC, Yao, W-J, Ma, M-C. Training and detraining effects of the resistance vs. endurance program on body composition, body size, and physical performance in young men. J Strength Cond Res. 2011; 25, 2246–2254.
29.Ortega, FB, Ruiz, JR, Hurtig-Wennlöf, A, et al. Physical activity attenuates the effect of low birth weight on insulin resistance in adolescents: findings from two observational studies. Diabetes. 2011; 60, 2295–2299.
30.Eriksson, JG, Ylihärsilä, H, Forsén, T, Osmond, C, Barker, DJP. Exercise protects against glucose intolerance in individuals with a small body size at birth. Prev Med. 2004; 39, 164–167.
31.Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, H-M, Lynch, J, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and vigorous leisure-time physical activity modify the association of small size at birth with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26, 2156–2164.
32.Ridgway, CL, Brage, S, Sharp, SJ, et al. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity. PloS One. 2011; 6, e16125.
33.Kaseva, N, Wehkalampi, K, Strang-Karlsson, S, et al. Lower conditioning leisure-time physical activity in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight. PloS One. 2012; 7, e32430.
34.Salonen, MK, Kajantie, E, Osmond, C, et al. Prenatal and childhood growth and leisure time physical activity in adult life. Eur J Public Health. 2011; 21, 719–724.
35.Kajantie, E, Strang-Karlsson, S, Hovi, P, et al. Adults born at very low birth weight exercise less than their peers born at term. J Pediatr. 2010; 157, 610–616.
36.Andersen, LG, Angquist, L, Gamborg, M, et al. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood: meta-analysis of results from 13 nordic cohorts. PloS One. 2009; 4, e8192.
37.Clemm, H, Røksund, O, Thorsen, E, Eide, GE, Markestad, T, Halvorsen, T. Aerobic capacity and exercise performance in young people born extremely preterm. Pediatrics. 2012; 129, e97–e105.
38.Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjöström, M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35, 1381–1395.
39.Faerch, K, Brøns, C, Alibegovic, AC, Vaag, A. The disposition index: adjustment for peripheral vs. hepatic insulin sensitivity? J Physiol. 2010; 588, 759–764.
40.Kahn, SE, Prigeon, RL, McCulloch, DK, et al. Quantification of the relationship between insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in human subjects. Evidence for a hyperbolic function. Diabetes. 1993; 42, 1663–1672.
41.Wallace, TM, Levy, JC, Matthews, DR. Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27, 1487–1495.
42.Tanaka, H, Monahan, KD, Seals, DR. Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37, 153–156.
43.Brage, S, Brage, N, Franks, PW, Ekelund, U, Wareham, NJ. Reliability and validity of the combined heart rate and movement sensor Actiheart. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005; 59, 561–570.
44.Stegle, O, Fallert, SV, MacKay, DJC, Brage, S. Gaussian process robust regression for noisy heart rate data. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008; 55, 2143–2151.
45.Ryberg, M, Sandberg, S, Mellberg, C, et al. A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women. J Intern Med. 2013; 274, 67–76.
46.Brage, S, Ekelund, U, Brage, N, et al. Hierarchy of individual calibration levels for heart rate and accelerometry to measure physical activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007; 103, 682–692.
47.Brage, S, Brage, N, Franks, PW, et al. Branched equation modeling of simultaneous accelerometry and heart rate monitoring improves estimate of directly measured physical activity energy expenditure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004; 96, 343–351.
48.Mortensen, B, Hingst, JR, Frederiksen, N, et al. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signalling in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 304, E1379–E1390.
49.Jensen, CB, Storgaard, H, Dela, F, Holst, JJ, Madsbad, S, Vaag, AA. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight. Diabetes. 2002; 51, 1271–1280.
50.Svedenkrans, J, Henckel, E, Kowalski, J, Norman, M, Bohlin, K. Long-term impact of preterm birth on exercise capacity in healthy young men: a national population-based cohort study. PLoS One. 2013; 8, e80869.